Author: Thomas J. Kelly
Publisher: Smithsonian Institution
Release Date: 2012-01-11
Chief engineer Thomas J. Kelly gives a firsthand account of designing, building, testing, and flying the Apollo lunar module. It was, he writes, “an aerospace engineer’s dream job of the century.” Kelly’s account begins with the imaginative process of sketching solutions to a host of technical challenges with an emphasis on safety, reliability, and maintainability. He catalogs numerous test failures, including propulsion-system leaks, ascent-engine instability, stress corrosion of the aluminum alloy parts, and battery problems, as well as their fixes under the ever-present constraints of budget and schedule. He also recaptures the exhilaration of hearing Apollo 11’s Neil Armstrong report that “The Eagle has landed,” and the pride of having inadvertently provided a vital “lifeboat” for the crew of the disabled Apollo 13. From the Hardcover edition.
On-point historical photographs combined with strong narration bring the story of the moon landing to life. Kids will learn about the cold war tensions between the US and the USSR that led to the space race, and the push from presidents Kennedy and Johnson to ensure the U.S. got to the moon first. As an added bonus, readers will learn about how this played out on TV. All of the networks covered it, but Walter Cronkite and astronaut Wally Shirra are there to narrate how it happened with real excitement. Accompanying video will show readers what viewers saw at the time.
Author: David Schrunk
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2007-11-27
This extraordinary book details how the Moon could be used as a springboard for Solar System exploration. It presents a realistic plan for placing and servicing telescopes on the Moon, and highlights the use of the Moon as a base for an early warning system from which to combat threats of near-Earth objects. A realistic vision of human development and settlement of the Moon over the next one hundred years is presented, and the author explains how global living standards for the Earth can be enhanced through the use of lunar-based generated solar power. From that beginning, the people of the Earth would evolve into a spacefaring civilisation.
This official NASA history document is a great review of the development of the Apollo spacecraft - the lunar module (LM) and the Command Service Module (CSM) - and the overall history of the moon landing program.The foreword states: " The story of Apollo is a remarkable chapter in the history of mankind. How remarkable will be determined by future generations as they attempt to assess and understand the relationship and significance of the Apollo achievements to the development of mankind. We hope that this book will contribute to their assessments and assist in their judgments. Writing the history of Apollo has been a tremendous undertaking. There is so much to tell; there are so many facets. The story of Apollo is filled with facts and figures about complex machines, computers, and facilities, and intricate maneuvers - these are the things with which the Apollo objectives were achieved. But a great effort has also been made to tell the real story of Apollo, to identify and describe the decisions and actions of men and women that led to the creation and operation of those complex machines." The preface notes: "Chariots for Apollo: A History of Manned Lunar Spacecraft begins with the creation of NASA itself and with the definition of a manned space flight program to follow Mercury. It ends with Apollo 11, when America attained its goal of the 1960s, landing the first men on the moon and returning them to the earth. The focal points of this story are the spacecraft - the command and service modules and the lunar module. The 14 chapters cover three phases of spacecraft evolution: defining and designing the vehicles needed to do the job, developing and qualifying (or certifying) them for the task, and operating them to achieve the objective. Like most large-scale research and development projects, Apollo began haltingly. NASA, with few resources and a program not yet approved, started slowly. Ad hoc committees and the field centers studied, tested, reported, and suggested, looking for the best way to make the voyage. Many aerospace industrial firms followed the same line, submitting the results of their findings to NASA and hoping to get their bids in early for a piece of the program."Contents include: Chapter 1 - Concept to Challenge * 1957 to Mid-1961 * Forging a National Space Policy * The Starting * The Goett Committee * Focusing the Aim * Priming the Pipeline * The Feasibility Studies * Portents for Apollo * The Challenge * Chapter 2 - Project Planning and Contracting * May through December 1961 * Committees at Work * Spacecraft Development Decision * Astronavigation - The First Apollo Contract * Contracting for the Command Module * Influences on Booster Determination * Help from the Department of Defense * Choice of Facilities * The Launch Vehicle: Question and Decision * Chapter 3 - Contending Modes * 1959 to Mid-1962 * Proposals: Before and after May 1961 * LOR Gains a NASA Adherent * Early Reaction to LOR * Analysis of LOR * Settling the Mode Issue * Casting the Die * Chapter 4 - Matching Modules and Missions * 1962 * The Team and the Tools * Preliminary Designs for the Lunar Lander * Pressures by PSAC * Fitting the Lunar Module into Apollo * NASA Adjustments for Apollo * NASA-Grumman Negotiations * End of a Phase * Chapter 5 - Command Module and Program Changes * 1963-1964 * The Headquarters Role * Command Module: Problems and Progress * Chapter 6 - Lunar Module * 1963-1964 * External Design * Tailoring the Cockpit * Hatches and Landing Gear * Engines, Large and Small * Environment and Electricity * The "Sub-Prime" and the Radar Problem * Guidance and Navigation * Mockup Reviews * The Lunar Module and the Apollo Program * Chapter 7 - Searching for Order * 1965 * Program Direction and the Command Module * Lunar Module Refinement * The LEM Test Program: A Pacing Item * The Manned Factor * Portents for Operations * more
Author: Brian Harvey
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2007-08-17
This book tells the story of the Soviet and Russian lunar programme, from its origins to the present-day federal Russian space programme. Brian Harvey describes the techniques devised by the USSR for lunar landing, from the LK lunar module to the LOK lunar orbiter and versions tested in Earth’s orbit. He asks whether these systems would have worked and examines how well they were tested. He concludes that political mismanagement rather than technology prevented the Soviet Union from landing cosmonauts on the moon. The book is well timed for the return to the moon by the United States and the first missions there by China and India.
These official NASA history documents include a Monograph in Aerospace History about the role of John Houbolt and others in advocating the successful Lunar Orbit Rendezvous (LOR) mission concept in the early part of Project Apollo, plus a NASA contractor report on the political and technical aspects of placing the American flag on the lunar surface during the Apollo 11 moonwalk. Enchanted Rendezvous - John C. Houbolt and the Genesis of the Lunar-Orbit Rendezvous Concept: One of the most critical technical decisions made during the conduct of Project Apollo was the method of flying to the Moon, landing on the surface, and returning to Earth. Within NASA during this debate several modes emerged. The one eventually chosen was lunar-orbit rendezvous (LOR), a proposal to send the entire lunar spacecraft up in one launch. It would head to the Moon, enter into orbit, and dispatch a small lander to the lunar surface. It was the simplest of the various methods, both in terms of development and operational costs, but it was risky. Since rendezvous would take place in lunar, instead of Earth, orbit there was no room for error or the crew could not get home. Moreover, some of the trickiest course corrections and maneuvers had to be done after the spacecraft had been committed to a circumlunar flight. Between the time of NASA's conceptualization of the lunar landing program and the decision in favor of LOR in 1962, a debate raged between advocates of the various methods. John C. Houbolt, an engineer at the Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, was one of the most vocal of those supporting LOR and his campaign in 1961 and 1962 helped to shape in a fundamental way the deliberations. The monograph that is printed here is an important contribution to the study of NASA history in general, and the process of accomplishing a large-scale technological program (in this case Apollo) in particular. In many ways, the lunar mode decision was an example of heterogeneous engineering, a process that recognizes that technological issues are also simultaneously organizational, economic, social, and political. Various interests often clash in the decision-making process as difficult calculations have to be made and decisions taken. What perhaps should be suggested is that a complex web or system of ties between various people, institutions, and interests brought forward the lunar-orbit rendezvous mode of going to the Moon in the 1960s. Where No Flag Has Gone Before: Political and Technical Aspects of Placing a Flag on the Moon - This paper examines the political and technical aspects of placing a flag on the moon, focusing on the first moon landing. During their historic extravehicular activity (EVA), the Apollo 11 crew planted the flag of the United States on the lunar surface. This flag-raising was strictly a symbolic activity, as the United Nations Treaty on Outer Space precluded any territorial claim. Nevertheless, there were domestic and international debates over the appropriateness of the event. Congress amended the agency's appropriations bill to prevent the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) from placing flags of other nations, or those of international associations, on the moon during missions funded solely by the United States. Like any activity in space exploration, the Apollo flag-raising also provided NASA engineers with an interesting technical challenge. They designed a flagpole with a horizontal bar allowing the flag to "fly" without the benefit of wind to overcome the effects of the moon's lack of an atmosphere. Other factors considered in the design were weight, heat resistance, and ease of assembly by astronauts whose space suits restricted their range of movement and ability to grasp items.
Author: Donald A. Beattie
Publisher: JHU Press
Release Date: 2003
How did science get aboard the Apollo rockets, and what did scientists do with the space allotted to them? Taking Science to the Moon describes, from the perspective of NASA headquarters, the struggles that took place to include science payloads and lunar exploration as part of the Apollo program. Donald A. Beattie—who served at NASA from 1963 to 1973 in several management positions and finally as program manager, Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments—here supplies a detailed, insider's view of the events leading up to the acceptance of science activities on all the Apollo missions.
This popularly written booklet contains nontechnical descriptions of 10 major engineering achievements selected by the National Academy of Engineering on the occasion of its 25th anniversary, December 5, 1989. The achievements are the moon landing, application satellites, the microprocessor, computer-aided design and manufacturing, computer-assisted tomography, advanced composite materials, the jumbo jet, lasers, fiber-optic communication, and genetically engineered products.
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 19th International Symposium on Formal Methods, FM 2014, held in Singapore, May 2014. The 45 papers presented together with 3 invited talks were carefully reviewed and selected from 150 submissions. The focus of the papers is on the following topics: Interdisciplinary Formal Methods, Practical Applications of Formal Methods in Industrial and Research Settings, Experimental Validation of Tools and Methods as well as Construction and Evolution of Formal Methods Tools.
Author: Erik Seedhouse
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2009-04-22
Genre: Technology & Engineering
Lunar Outpost provides a detailed account of the various technologies, mission architectures, medical requirements and training needed to return humans to the Moon within the next decade. It focuses on the means by which a lunar outpost will be constructed and also addresses major topics such as the cost of the enterprise and the roles played by private companies and individual countries. The return of humans to the surface of the Moon will be critical to the exploration of the solar system. The various missions are not only in pursuit of scientific knowledge, but also looking to extend human civilization, economic expansion, and public engagement beyond Earth. As well as NASA, China’s Project 921, Japan’s Aerospace Exploration Agency, Russia, and the European Space Agency are all planning manned missions to the Moon and, eventually, to Mars. The Ares-I and Ares-V are the biggest rockets since the Saturn V and there is much state-of-the-art technology incorporated into the design of Orion, the spacecraft that will carry a crew of four astronauts to the Moon. Lunar Outpost also describes the human factors, communications, exploration activities, and life support constraints of the missions.