White Matter Injury in Stroke and CNS Disease

Author: Selva Baltan
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781461491231
Release Date: 2013-11-19
Genre: Medical

White matter injury can result from both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke as well as a host of other CNS diseases and conditions such as neonatal injuries, neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease, traumatic brain injuries, carbon monoxide poisoning, and drug or alcohol overdoses. The extent of white matter injury is extremely important to patient outcomes. Several recent technological developments including advanced neuroimaging and the breeding of new rodent models of white matter injury have provided growing insight into initial damage and repair after a stroke or other damaging event. The proposed book will be the first to provide a systematic expert summary of normal white matter morphology as well as white matter injury following stroke and other CNS injuries.

Immunological Mechanisms and Therapies in Brain Injuries and Stroke

Author: Jun Chen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781461489153
Release Date: 2013-11-09
Genre: Medical

Recent research has revealed the importance of immunological mechanisms and inflammation in delaying damage and/or promoting repair after an acute injury to the central nervous system. This book provides a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the role of immunological mechanisms and therapies for treating acute neurological injuries such as cerebral ischemia, hemorrhage, and brain and spinal cord trauma. In several sections, the contributing authors provide a review of immunological mechanisms involved in neurological injury and of various translational and clinical research aimed at harnessing those mechanisms for better patient outcomes.​

Translational Stroke Research

Author: Paul A. Lapchak
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441995292
Release Date: 2012-03-23
Genre: Medical

This volume sets a basis for effective translational research. Authored by experts in the field of translational stroke research, each chapter specifically addresses one or more components of preclinical stroke research. The emphasis is placed on target identification and drug development using state-of-the-art in vitro and in vivo assays, in combination with in vitro toxicology assays, AMDE and clinical design.

Vascular Mechanisms in CNS Trauma

Author: Eng H. Lo
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781461486909
Release Date: 2013-11-04
Genre: Medical

While there are a number of books on the market that deal with neuronal mechanisms and targets, the proposed book will be the only one to cover the vascular aspects of CNS trauma. The contributing authors will present basic mechanisms, explain cutting-edge experimental models and techniques, and provide several clinical chapters that provide treating physicians with some insight on the cases that they see in the ICU. The table of contents is diverse and comprehensive with chapters on molecular mechanisms, physiology, pharmacology, stem cells, genomics and proteomics, in vivo MRI and PET, as well as the clinical management of vascular parameters.​

Non Neuronal Mechanisms of Brain Damage and Repair After Stroke

Author: Jun Chen
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319323374
Release Date: 2016-08-11
Genre: Medical

This book provides a comprehensive overview of the latest research in the role of non-neuronal cells - astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, endothelial cells, pericytes, microglia, and other immune cells in ischemic brain injury and long-term recovery. In these cases, neurodegeneration and brain repair are controlled in a sophisticated system, incorporating interactions between different cell types and cellular systems. Also explored are the therapeutic strategies that target non-neuronal responses after stroke and their translational potentials.

Metal Ion in Stroke

Author: Yang V. Li
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441996633
Release Date: 2012-06-15
Genre: Medical

Stroke is a major cause of death and disability in the U.S. and worldwide. A variety of pathophysiologic episodes or cellular medications occur following a stroke, and knowledge of these aftermath events can lead to potential therapeutic strategies that may reverse or attenuate stroke injury. Cellular events that occur following stroke include the excessive releases of excitatory amino acids, alterations in the genomic responses, mitochondrial injury producing reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS), and secondary injury, often in the setting of reperfusion.

Innate Tolerance in the CNS

Author: Jeffrey M. Gidday
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441996954
Release Date: 2012-09-21
Genre: Medical

Cerebral preconditioning is a phenomenon wherein a mild insult or stress induces cellular and tissue adaptation or tolerance to a later, severe injury, therefore reflecting the efficacy of endogenous mechanisms of cerebrovascular protection. Initially identified for rapid cardiac protection, preconditioning has expanded to all aspects of CNS protection from ischemia, trauma and potentially neurodegeneration. Many different stimuli or stressors have been identified as preconditioning agents, suggesting a downstream convergence of mechanisms and underscoring the potential for translational application of preconditioning in the clinic. Moreover, the fundamental mechanisms responsible for preconditioning-induced tolerance will help in the design novel pharmacological approaches for neuroprotection. While stroke and many other brain injuries are not predictable, in some populations (e.g., metabolic syndrome, patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy, aneurysm clipping, or with recent TIAs) the risk for stroke is identifiable and significant, and preconditioning may represent a useful strategy for neuroprotection. For unpredictable injuries, post-conditioning the brain – or inducing endogenous protective mechanisms after the initial injury – can also abrogate the extent of injury. Finally, remote pre- and post-conditioning methods have been developed in animals, and are now being tested in clinical trials, wherein a brief, noninjurious stress to a noncerebral tissue (i.e., skeletal muscle) can provide protection to the CNS and thereby allows clinicians the opportunity to circumvent concerns regarding the direct preconditioning of neurological tissues.

Cellular Therapy for Stroke and CNS Injuries

Author: Li-Ru Zhao
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319114811
Release Date: 2014-11-24
Genre: Medical

Cellular therapy for stroke and neural trauma has gained worldwide attention during the last decade and has shown some promising results. Various cells, including neural stem cells, bone marrow stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells, and many others have had protective or regenerative effects in animal models. The proposed book will address recent research on all relevant cell types. In addition, it will provide information on cell isolation and culture skills, transplantation methods, and neurological functional evaluations. This is the first book to focus on cellular therapy for stroke and other CNS injuries.

Neuropsychiatric Symptoms of Inflammatory Demyelinating Diseases

Author: Bruno Brochet
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319184647
Release Date: 2015-07-23
Genre: Medical

This book is an up-to-date, comprehensive review of the neuropsychiatry of multiple sclerosis and related diseases, by active authorities in the field, with an emphasis on diagnosis and management. Critical appraisal of the methodological aspects and limitations of the current research on the neuropsychiatry of demyelinating diseases is included, and unanswered questions are highlighted. Pharmacological aspects of management are discussed. Neuropsychiatric Symptoms of Inflammatory Demyelinating Diseases is aimed at neurologists, multiple sclerosis specialists and psychiatrists, and will also be of interest to intensive care doctors, psychologists ad neuropsychologists, research and specialist nurses, clinical researchers and methodologists.

Brain Edema XVI

Author: Richard L Applegate
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319184975
Release Date: 2015-10-13
Genre: Medical

In this book, leading world authorities on brain edema and neurological disorders/injuries and experts in preconditioning join forces to discuss the latest progress in basic sciences, translational research, and clinical management strategies relating to these conditions. The range of topics covered is wide, including microglia, energy metabolism, trace metals and ion channels, vascular biology, cellular treatment, hemorrhagic stroke, novel technological advances, anesthesia and medical gases, pediatric brain edema, neuroimaging, behavioral assessment, clinical trials, peripheral to central signaling pathways, preconditioning translation, and animal models for preconditioning and brain edema research. The book comprises presentations from Brain Edema 2014, the joint meeting of the 16th International Conference on Brain Edema and Cellular Injury and the 3rd Symposium on Preconditioning for Neurological Disorders, held in Los Angeles on September 27–30, 2014.

Cerebral Microbleeds

Author: David J. Werring
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139496216
Release Date: 2011-05-26
Genre: Medical

Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability throughout the world. About one in three symptomatic strokes are due to disease of small perforating arteries; however, most effective interventions are targeted at disease of large arteries. The underlying mechanisms and treatment of small vessel disease remain poorly understood. Microbleeds have emerged as a critical imaging marker of small vessel disease, being found in all types of stroke. With increasing evidence that microbleeds are caused by hypertensive arteriopathy and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, they are likely to play a strong future role in increasing our understanding of the causes of small vessel disease and the potential link between cerebrovascular disease and neurodegeneration. Cerebral Microbleeds summarizes our current knowledge, bringing together expert research from global authorities in the field. This authoritative and systematic text will be of interest to all clinical researchers and physicians in the fields of stroke and cognitive impairment.

Translational Research in Stroke

Author: Paul A. Lapchak
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9789811058042
Release Date: 2017-12-20
Genre: Medical

This book mainly discusses the current status of stroke transnational research and allows the reader to understand the interplay of common comorbidities in the stroke population such as diabetes and hypertension, and provides insight into stroke targets to promote cell survival, angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and most importantly, functional recovery after stroke. Throughout the world, stroke is still a leading cause of mortality and morbidity; each year approximately 15 million people worldwide suffer from stroke. Stroke is now the leading cause of death and disability in China. Large communities of stroke survivors are eagerly awaiting scientific advances in transnational stroke research that would offer neuroprotective therapeutics for acute stroke management, or rehabilitation and regenerative strategies utilizing novel stem cell-based approaches. While research is ongoing, the Editors have compiled this volume to help the further understanding of the pathophysiology of stroke and to review and identify future potential biomarkers. The book is written for students, researchers and physicians in neurosciences, neurology and neuroradiology.

The Pelvis

Author: Enrico Marani
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642400063
Release Date: 2014-02-13
Genre: Medical

This book offers a critical review of the pelvic sciences—past, present and future—from an anatomical and physiological perspective and is intended for researchers, medical practitioners and paramedical therapists in the fields of urology, gynecology and obstetrics, proctology, physiotherapy, as well as for patients. The book starts with a “construction plan” of the pelvis and shows its structural consequences. The historical background of pelvic studies proceeds from medieval and early Italian models to the definitive understanding of the pelvic anatomy in the Seventeenth century. During these eras of pelvic research, concepts and approaches developed that are illustrated with examples from comparative anatomy and from mutations, also with regard to the biomechanics of pelvic structures. Perceptions of the pelvis as an important element in sexual arousal and mating conduct are discussed, as well as attitudes to circumcision, castration and other mutilations, in its anthropological, social context. The anatomy and physiology of the pelvic wall and its organs as well as the development of these pelvic organs are covered as a prerequisite to understanding, for example, the spread of pelvic carcinoma and male and female bladder muscle function. Connective pelvic tissue is examined in its reinforcing capacity for pelvic structures, but also as a “hiding place” for infections. Innervations and reflexes relayed through the pelvic nerves are discussed in order to explain incontinence, sphincter function and the control of smooth and striated muscles in the pelvis. Catheters and drugs acting on pelvic function are described, and a critical review of alternative clinical methods for treating pelvic dysfunctions is provided.

Clinical Applications of Botulinum Neurotoxin

Author: Keith Alan Foster
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9781493902613
Release Date: 2014-07-08
Genre: Science

Currently, there are tremendous advances being made in understanding the basic science of both the structure and function of botulinum neurotoxins. This knowledge is opening up opportunities in regard to both therapeutic uses and treatment and protection options for civil and bio-defense applications. This volume fully evaluates the status of neurotoxin research and exploitation. The book is a multi-authored collection of chapters written by the leading authorities responsible for the current scientific and clinical research that is advancing the understanding and exploitation of the neurotoxins and is both up to date and authoritative.

Neurology at the Bedside

Author: Daniel Kondziella
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319559919
Release Date: 2017-05-31
Genre: Medical

This updated and expanded new edition takes neurology trainees by the hand and guides them through the whole patient encounter - from an efficient neurological history and bedside examination through to differential diagnosis, diagnostic procedures and treatment. At each step the expert authors point out what is essential and what is not. Since the first edition, which was Highly Commended at the BMA Book Awards, chapters have been thoroughly revised and reflect the essential state-of-the-art knowledge neurologists need to acquire during their training. New graphic material has been added, as have new chapters including neurogenetics, neurorehabilitation, neurocritical care and heuristic neurological reasoning. In addition, this second edition now includes more than 100 unique case histories. Neurology at the Bedside, Second Edition is written for neurologists in all stages of training. Medical students, general practitioners and others with an interest in neurology will also find invaluable information here.