Values in Medicine

Author: Donald Evans
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781134095865
Release Date: 2007-12-12
Genre: Health & Fitness

Written by a leading proponent of the philosophy and ethics of healthcare, this volume is filled with thought-provoking and frequently controversial ideas and arguments. Accessibly written, it provides readers with a timely contribution to the current literature on medical ethics, in which the concept of subjectivity is a key issue characterizing current medical humanities. Examining the critical assumption that scientifically-demonstrable facts will remove all uncertainty, the author argues that ethical dimensions of clinical practice do not always arise from undisputed facts, but that they are sometimes to be found at the level of the determinations of the facts themselves. Firmly placing the patient back on centre stage, without underestimating the crucial role which science plays in modern medicine, this volume is an excellent account of ethics and science in healthcare and their proper place in assessing and meeting people’s health needs.

The Body in Bioethics

Author: Alastair V. Campbell
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781135393007
Release Date: 2009-05-07
Genre: Law

Recent debates about uses and abuses of the human body in medicine have highlighted the need for a thorough discussion of the ethics of the uses of bodies, both living and dead. Thorough and comprehensive, this volume explores different views of the significance of the human body and contrasting those which regard it as a commodity or personal possession with those which stress its moral value as integral to the personal identity of individuals. The Body in Bioethics addresses a number of key questions including: Should it be legal to sell human organs for transplantation? Are public displays of plastinated bodies or public autopsies morally justifiable? Should there be restrictions on the uses of human tissue in teaching and research? Is the rapid increase in volume and range of cosmetic surgery a matter for moral concern? This careful study of moral values provides essential background to many of the current controversies in medical ethics and is essential reading for all students of law, medical law and medical ethics.

Autonomy Consent and the Law

Author: Sheila A.M. McLean
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781135219055
Release Date: 2009-09-10
Genre: Law

Autonomy is often said to be the dominant ethical principle in modern bioethics, and it is also important in law. Respect for autonomy is said to underpin the law of consent, which is theoretically designed to protect the right of patients to make decisions based on their own values and for their own reasons. The notion that consent underpins beneficent and lawful medical intervention is deeply rooted in the jurisprudence of countries throughout the world. However, Autonomy, Consent and the Law challenges the relationship between consent rules and autonomy, arguing that the very nature of the legal process inhibits its ability to respect autonomy, specifically in cases where patients argue that their ability to act autonomously has been reduced or denied as a result of the withholding of information which they would have wanted to receive. Sheila McLean further argues that the bioethical debate about the true nature of autonomy – while rich and challenging – has had little if any impact on the law. Using the alleged distinction between the individualistic and the relational models of autonomy as a template, the author proposes that, while it might be assumed that the version ostensibly preferred by law – roughly equivalent to the individualistic model – would be transparently and consistently applied, in fact courts have vacillated between the two to achieve policy-based objectives. This is highlighted by examination of four specific areas of the law which most readily lend themselves to consideration of the application of the autonomy principle: namely refusal of life-sustaining treatment and assisted dying, maternal/foetal issues, genetics and transplantation. This book will be of great interest to scholars of medical law and bioethics.

Saviour Siblings

Author: Michelle Taylor-Sands
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781136012167
Release Date: 2013-10-30
Genre: Medical

Genetic screening technologies involving pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) raise particular issues about selective reproduction and the welfare of the child to be born. How does selection impact on the identity of the child who is born? Are children who are selected for a particular purpose harmed or treated as commodities? How far should the state interfere with parents’ reproductive choices? Currently, concerns about the welfare of the child in selective reproduction have focused on the individual interests of the child to be born. This book re-evaluates the welfare of the child through the controversial topic of saviour sibling selection. Drawing on relational feminist and communitarian ethics, Michelle Taylor-Sands argues that the welfare of the child to be born is inextricably linked with the welfare of his/her family. The author proposes a relational model for selective reproduction based on a broad conception of the welfare of the child that includes both individual and collective family interests. By comparing regulation in the UK and Australia, the book maps out how law and policy might support a relational model for saviour sibling selection. With an interdisciplinary focus, Saviour Siblings: A Relational Approach to the Welfare of the Child in Selective Reproduction will be of particular interest to academics and students of bioethics and law as well as practitioners and policymakers concerned with the ethics of selective reproduction.

Euthanasia Ethics and the Law

Author: Richard Huxtable
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781135392437
Release Date: 2007-11-20
Genre: Law

Euthanasia, Ethics and the Law argues that the law governing the ending of life in England and Wales is unclear, confused and often contradictory. The book shows that the rules are in competition because the ethical principles underlying the rules are also diverse and conflicting. In mounting his case Richard Huxtable considers some familiar and topical debates, including assisted suicide and voluntary euthanasia, examining such situations as the Dianne Pretty litigation and Lord Joffe's Assisted Dying for the Terminally Ill Bill. The book also enters some important, but less well-charted areas, looking at the advent of 'death tourism' and the real status of involuntary and passive euthanasia in English law, in addition to clarifying the confusion that surrounds the use of powerful painkillers like morphine. Dealing with both legal and ethical issues, the text concludes that the time has come to more openly adopt a compromise position - one that more honestly recognises and accommodates the competing values, whilst also restoring a measure of coherence to the law.

The Body in Bioethics

Author: Alastair V. Campbell
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781135393007
Release Date: 2009-05-07
Genre: Law

Recent debates about uses and abuses of the human body in medicine have highlighted the need for a thorough discussion of the ethics of the uses of bodies, both living and dead. Thorough and comprehensive, this volume explores different views of the significance of the human body and contrasting those which regard it as a commodity or personal possession with those which stress its moral value as integral to the personal identity of individuals. The Body in Bioethics addresses a number of key questions including: Should it be legal to sell human organs for transplantation? Are public displays of plastinated bodies or public autopsies morally justifiable? Should there be restrictions on the uses of human tissue in teaching and research? Is the rapid increase in volume and range of cosmetic surgery a matter for moral concern? This careful study of moral values provides essential background to many of the current controversies in medical ethics and is essential reading for all students of law, medical law and medical ethics.

Autonomy Consent and the Law

Author: Sheila A.M. McLean
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781135219055
Release Date: 2009-09-10
Genre: Law

Autonomy is often said to be the dominant ethical principle in modern bioethics, and it is also important in law. Respect for autonomy is said to underpin the law of consent, which is theoretically designed to protect the right of patients to make decisions based on their own values and for their own reasons. The notion that consent underpins beneficent and lawful medical intervention is deeply rooted in the jurisprudence of countries throughout the world. However, Autonomy, Consent and the Law challenges the relationship between consent rules and autonomy, arguing that the very nature of the legal process inhibits its ability to respect autonomy, specifically in cases where patients argue that their ability to act autonomously has been reduced or denied as a result of the withholding of information which they would have wanted to receive. Sheila McLean further argues that the bioethical debate about the true nature of autonomy – while rich and challenging – has had little if any impact on the law. Using the alleged distinction between the individualistic and the relational models of autonomy as a template, the author proposes that, while it might be assumed that the version ostensibly preferred by law – roughly equivalent to the individualistic model – would be transparently and consistently applied, in fact courts have vacillated between the two to achieve policy-based objectives. This is highlighted by examination of four specific areas of the law which most readily lend themselves to consideration of the application of the autonomy principle: namely refusal of life-sustaining treatment and assisted dying, maternal/foetal issues, genetics and transplantation. This book will be of great interest to scholars of medical law and bioethics.

Medical Ethics in China

Author: Jing-Bao Nie
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781136491252
Release Date: 2013-06-17
Genre: Law

Drawing on a wide range of primary historical and sociological sources and employing sharp philosophical analysis, this book investigates medical ethics from a Chinese-Western comparative perspective. In doing so, it offers a fascinating exploration of both cultural differences and commonalities exhibited by China and the West in medicine and medical ethics. The book carefully examines a number of key bioethical issues in the Chinese socio-cultural context including: attitudes toward foetuses; disclosure of information by medical professionals; informed consent; professional medical ethics; health promotion; feminist bioethics; and human rights. It not only provides insights into Chinese perspectives, but also sheds light on the appropriate methods for comparative cultural and ethical studies. Through his pioneering study, Jing-Bao Nie has put forward a theory of "trans-cultural bioethics," an ethical paradigm which upholds the primacy of morality whilst resisting cultural stereotypes, and appreciating the internal plurality, richness, dynamism and openness of medical ethics in any culture. Medical Ethics in China will be of particular interest to students and academics in the fields of Medical Law, Bioethics, Medical Ethics, Cross-Cultural Ethics as well as Chinese/Asian Studies and Comparative Cross-Cultural Studies.

Beyond the HIPAA Privacy Rule

Author: Committee on Health Research and the Privacy of Health Information: The HIPAA Privacy Rule
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309124997
Release Date: 2009-02-24
Genre: Computers

In the realm of health care, privacy protections are needed to preserve patients' dignity and prevent possible harms. Ten years ago, to address these concerns as well as set guidelines for ethical health research, Congress called for a set of federal standards now known as the HIPAA Privacy Rule. In its 2009 report, Beyond the HIPAA Privacy Rule: Enhancing Privacy, Improving Health Through Research, the Institute of Medicine's Committee on Health Research and the Privacy of Health Information concludes that the HIPAA Privacy Rule does not protect privacy as well as it should, and that it impedes important health research.

Principles of Biomedical Ethics

Author: Tom L. Beauchamp
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 9780195143317
Release Date: 2001
Genre: Medical

For many years this has been a leading textbook of bioethics. It established the framework of principles within the field. This is a very thorough revision with a new chapter on methods and moral justification.

Society s Choices

Author: Committee on the Social and Ethical Impacts of Developments in Biomedicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309051323
Release Date: 1995-02-27
Genre: Medical

Breakthroughs in biomedicine often lead to new life-giving treatments but may also raise troubling, even life-and-death, quandaries. Society's Choices discusses ways for people to handle today's bioethics issues in the context of America's unique history and culture--and from the perspectives of various interest groups. The book explores how Americans have grappled with specific aspects of bioethics through commission deliberations, programs by organizations, and other mechanisms and identifies criteria for evaluating the outcomes of these efforts. The committee offers recommendations on the role of government and professional societies, the function of commissions and institutional review boards, and bioethics in health professional education and research. The volume includes a series of 12 superb background papers on public moral discourse, mechanisms for handling social and ethical dilemmas, and other specific areas of controversy by well-known experts Ronald Bayer, Martin Benjamin, Dan W. Brock, Baruch A. Brody, H. Alta Charo, Lawrence Gostin, Bradford H. Gray, Kathi E. Hanna, Elizabeth Heitman, Thomas Nagel, Steven Shapin, and Charles M. Swezey.

Defending the Genetic Supermarket

Author: Colin Gavaghan
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781135392925
Release Date: 2007-03-12
Genre: Law

The controversial topic of the technology of Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis, and the muddled approach to this subject adopted by the UK Parliament, is explored in detail in this volume. The author takes the viewpoint that the HFEA has taken insufficient notice to date of certain core ethical principles and makes the case for a much more ethically consistent and humane system than has been managed so far. Arguing that many of the fears and objections levied against Robert Nozick’s notion of the ‘Genetic Supermarket’ by disability activists, christian bioethicists and radical feminists, amongst others, are internally inconsistent, philosophically unsound or merely highly improbable, the author considers a number of individual policy decisions of the HFEA and addresses such questions as: Can a case be made out for state involvement in such decisions? Who stands to be harmed by a supermarket model? Are any ethical principles or societal interests threatened by it? This book is an essential resource for law students of all levels and professionals working within or interested in medical and healthcare law and medical genetics.

Ethical Health Informatics

Author: Laurinda Beebe Harman
Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Learning
ISBN: 9781284114775
Release Date: 2015-12-07
Genre: Business & Economics

Ethical Informatics is an invaluable resource for HIM, the healthcare team (nursing, physical therapy, occupational therapy et al.), information technology (IT) students (associate, baccalaureate and graduate) and practitioners. Each chapter includes ethical “real life” scenarios, a discussion of the issues, and a decision-making matrix for each scenario that facilitates an understanding of ethical ways to respond to the problem and actions that would not be considered ethical.

The Umbilical Cord Blood Controversies in Medical Law

Author: Karen Devine
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781317555445
Release Date: 2017-01-12
Genre: Law

Since the therapeutic value of umbilical cord blood (UCB) stem cells was first recognised in the late 1980s, there has been a proliferation of both public and private UCB banks worldwide. However, the ability to utilise such a potentially valuable resource has provoked a number of controversies. In a distinctly accessible style, this book unpacks the socio-legal implications of the UCB collection process and constructs a detailed analysis of the law and ethics that surrounds UCB banking in the UK, including ownership of the cells. Its enquiry is located within the theoretical framework of altruism versus self-interest and explores the notions of risk and choice associated with this distinctive blend of public/private healthcare provision. The book evaluates the impact of the Human Tissue Act 2004 and the European Union Tissues and Cells Directive (2004/23/EC) on the UCB industry and provides a unique insight into the effect that the law may have on the NHS whose maternity staff and premises are used to collect UCB. This book would be of interest primarily to a UK readership in addition to expectant families, health professionals, students, academics, practitioners and the UCB industry elsewhere in the world.

Conflict of Interest in Medical Research Education and Practice

Author: Institute of Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309145442
Release Date: 2009-09-16
Genre: Medical

Collaborations of physicians and researchers with industry can provide valuable benefits to society, particularly in the translation of basic scientific discoveries to new therapies and products. Recent reports and news stories have, however, documented disturbing examples of relationships and practices that put at risk the integrity of medical research, the objectivity of professional education, the quality of patient care, the soundness of clinical practice guidelines, and the public's trust in medicine. Conflict of Interest in Medical Research, Education, and Practice provides a comprehensive look at conflict of interest in medicine. It offers principles to inform the design of policies to identify, limit, and manage conflicts of interest without damaging constructive collaboration with industry. It calls for both short-term actions and long-term commitments by institutions and individuals, including leaders of academic medical centers, professional societies, patient advocacy groups, government agencies, and drug, device, and pharmaceutical companies. Failure of the medical community to take convincing action on conflicts of interest invites additional legislative or regulatory measures that may be overly broad or unduly burdensome. Conflict of Interest in Medical Research, Education, and Practice makes several recommendations for strengthening conflict of interest policies and curbing relationships that create risks with little benefit. The book will serve as an invaluable resource for individuals and organizations committed to high ethical standards in all realms of medicine.