Uncle Sam Wants You

Author: Christopher Capozzola
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199830961
Release Date: 2010-04-12
Genre: History

Based on a rich array of sources that capture the voices of both political leaders and ordinary Americans, Uncle Sam Wants You offers a vivid and provocative new interpretation of American political history, revealing how the tensions of mass mobilization during World War I led to a significant increase in power for the federal government. Christopher Capozzola shows how, when the war began, Americans at first mobilized society by stressing duty, obligation, and responsibility over rights and freedoms. But the heated temper of war quickly unleashed coercion on an unprecedented scale, making wartime America the scene of some of the nation's most serious political violence, including notorious episodes of outright mob violence. To solve this problem, Americans turned over increasing amounts of power to the federal government. In the end, whether they were some of the four million men drafted under the Selective Service Act or the tens of millions of home-front volunteers, Americans of the World War I era created a new American state, and new ways of being American citizens.

Uncle Sam Wants You

Author: Christopher Capozzola
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 9780195335491
Release Date: 2008-07-21
Genre: History

Examines the effects of participation in World War I on society and government in the United States, including the increased tolerance of legal controls on behavior and the condemnation of those who did not conform.

Uncle Sam Wants You

Author: Christopher Capozzola
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019971486X
Release Date: 2008-07-21
Genre: History

Based on a rich array of sources that capture the voices of both political leaders and ordinary Americans, Uncle Sam Wants You offers a vivid and provocative new interpretation of American political history, revealing how the tensions of mass mobilization during World War I led to a significant increase in power for the federal government. Christopher Capozzola shows how, when the war began, Americans at first mobilized society by stressing duty, obligation, and responsibility over rights and freedoms. But the heated temper of war quickly unleashed coercion on an unprecedented scale, making wartime America the scene of some of the nation's most serious political violence, including notorious episodes of outright mob violence. To solve this problem, Americans turned over increasing amounts of power to the federal government. In the end, whether they were some of the four million men drafted under the Selective Service Act or the tens of millions of home-front volunteers, Americans of the World War I era created a new American state, and new ways of being American citizens.

Freedom Struggles

Author: Adriane Danette Lentz-Smith
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674054189
Release Date: 2010-03-01
Genre: History

For many of the 200,000 black soldiers sent to Europe with the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I, encounters with French civilians and colonial African troops led them to imagine a world beyond Jim Crow. They returned home to join activists working to make that world real. In narrating the efforts of African American soldiers and activists to gain full citizenship rights as recompense for military service, Adriane Lentz-Smith illuminates how World War I mobilized a generation.

Over Here

Author: David M. Kennedy
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0195173996
Release Date: 2004-09-16
Genre: History

Considers the implications of America's involvement in World War I for intellectuals, minorities, politicians, and economists.

Making the World Safe

Author: Julia Irwin
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199766406
Release Date: 2013-05-23
Genre: History

A history of the relationship between the United States and foreign countries through its humanitarian interventions in the early 20th century.

Making Men Moral

Author: Nancy K. Bristow
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 9780814786239
Release Date: 1997-10-01
Genre: History

On May 29, 1917, Mrs. E. M. Craise, citizen of Denver, Colorado, penned a letter to President Woodrow Wilson, which concluded, We have surrendered to your absolute control our hearts' dearest treasures--our sons. If their precious bodies that have cost us so dear should be torn to shreds by German shot and shells we will try to live on in the hope of meeting them again in the blessed Country of happy reunions. But, Mr. President, if the hell-holes that infest their training camps should trip up their unwary feet and they be returned to us besotted degenerate wrecks of their former selves cursed with that hell-born craving for alcohol, we can have no such hope. Anxious about the United States' pending entry into the Great War, fearful that their sons would be polluted by the scourges of prostitution, venereal disease, illicit sex, and drink that ran rampant in the training camps, countless Americans sent such missives to their government officials. In response to this deluge, President Wilson created the Commission on Training Camp Activities to ensure the purity of the camp environment. Training camps would henceforth mold not only soldiers, but model citizens who, after the war, would return to their communities, spreading white, urban, middle-class values throughout the country. What began as a federal program designed to eliminate sexually transmitted diseases soon mushroomed into a powerful social force intent on replacing America's many cultures with a single, homogenous one. Though committed to the positive methods of education and recreation, the reformers did not hesitate to employ repression when necessary. Those not conforming to the prescribed vision of masculinity often faced exclusion from the reformers' idealized society, or sometimes even imprisonment. Social engineering ruled the day. Combining social, cultural, and military history and illustrating the deep divisions among reformers themselves, Nancy K. Bristow, with the aid of dozens of evocative photographs, here brings to life a pivotal era in the history of the U.S., revealing the complex relationship between the nation's competing cultures, progressive reform efforts, and the Great War.

Torchbearers of Democracy

Author: Chad L. Williams
Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press
ISBN: 0807899356
Release Date: 2010-09-20
Genre: Social Science

For the 380,000 African American soldiers who fought in World War I, Woodrow Wilson's charge to make the world "safe for democracy" carried life-or-death meaning. Chad L. Williams reveals the central role of African American soldiers in the global conflict and how they, along with race activists and ordinary citizens, committed to fighting for democracy at home and beyond. Using a diverse range of sources, Torchbearers of Democracy reclaims the legacy of African American soldiers and veterans and connects their history to issues such as the obligations of citizenship, combat and labor, diaspora and internationalism, homecoming and racial violence, "New Negro" militancy, and African American memories of the war.

Black Patriots and Loyalists

Author: Alan Gilbert
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226293073
Release Date: 2012-04-20
Genre: History

We commonly think of the American Revolution as simply the war for independence from British colonial rule. But, of course, that independence actually applied to only a portion of the American population—African Americans would still be bound in slavery for nearly another century. In Black Patriots and Loyalists, Alan Gilbert asks us to rethink what we know about the Revolutionary War, to realize that while white Americans were fighting for their freedom, black Americans were joining the British imperial forces to gain theirs. There were actually two wars being waged at once: a political revolution for independence from Britain and a social revolution for emancipation and equality. Drawing upon recently discovered archival material, Gilbert traces the intense imperial and patriot rivalry over recruitment and emancipation that led both sides to depend on blacks. As well, he presents persuasive evidence that slavery could have been abolished during the Revolution itself if either side had fully pursued the military advantage of freeing slaves and pressing them into combat—as when Washington formed the all-black and Native American First Rhode Island Regimen and Lord Dunmore freed slaves and indentured servants to fight for the British. Gilbert's extensive research reveals that free blacks on both sides played a crucial and underappreciated role in the actual fighting. Black Patriots and Loyalists contends that the struggle for emancipation was not only basic to the Revolution itself, but was a rousing force that would inspire freedom movements like the abolition societies of the North and the black loyalist pilgrimages for freedom in places such as Nova Scotia and Sierra Leone. In this thought-provoking history, Gilbert illuminates how the fight for abolition and equality—not just for the independence of the few but for the freedom and self-government of the many—has been central to the American story from its inception.

Spaces of Law in American Foreign Relations

Author: Daniel S. Margolies
Publisher: University of Georgia Press
ISBN: 9780820338712
Release Date: 2011
Genre: Law

In the late nineteenth century the United States oversaw a great increase in extraterritorial claims, boundary disputes, extradition controversies, and transborder abduction and interdiction. In this sweeping history of the underpinnings of American empire, Daniel S. Margolies offers a new frame of analysis for historians to understand how novel assertions of legal spatiality and extraterritoriality were deployed in U.S. foreign relations during an era of increased national ambitions and global connectedness. Whether it was in the Mexican borderlands or in other hot spots around the globe, Margolies shows that American policy responded to disputes over jurisdiction by defining the space of law on the basis of a strident unilateralism. Especially significant and contested were extradition regimes and the exceptions carved within them. Extradition of fugitives reflected critical questions of sovereignty and the role of the state in foreign affair during the run-up to overseas empire in 1898. Using extradition as a critical lens, Spaces of Law in American Foreign Relations examines the rich embeddedness of questions of sovereignty, territoriality, legal spatiality, and citizenship and shows that U.S. hegemonic power was constructed in significant part in the spaces of law, not simply through war or trade.

A Date Which Will Live

Author: Emily S. Rosenberg
Publisher: Duke University Press
ISBN: 082233206X
Release Date: 2003-08-25
Genre: History

December 7, 1941--the date of Japan's surprise attack on the U.S. fleet at Pearl Harbor--is "a date which will live" in American history and memory, but the stories that "will live" and the meanings assigned to them are hardly settled or singular. In movies, books, and magazines, at memorial sites, in ceremonies, and on television and the internet, Pearl Harbor lives in a thousand guises and symbolizes dozens of historical lessons. A Date Which Will Live examines Pearl Harbor in American history and memory. Historian Emily S. Rosenberg does not try to determine the truth of this iconic event, but rather to explore the variety of cultural meanings--and political contests--that have been attached to the words "Pearl Harbor." Rosenberg considers the emergence of Pearl Harbor symbolism from multiple perspectives: as the day of infamy that upended ideas of U.S. military preparedness, the attack that opened a "back-door" for U.S. involvement in World War II, a commemorated event, and a rupture in American-Japanese relations. She explores the numerous, overlapping cultural contexts that have contributed to Pearl Harbor's resurgence in American memory since the fiftieth-year anniversary in 1991. Among these she identifies a "memory boom" in American culture, the movement to exonerate commanders Admiral Husband Kimmel and General Walter Short, and the political mobilization of various groups during the culture and history "wars" of the 1990s, as well as the effect of the blockbuster movie Titanic in propelling historical spectacles such as the film Pearl Harbor to theater screens. Rosenberg also discusses the use of Pearl Harbor as a historical frame for understanding the events of September 11, 2001.

Into the breach

Author: Dorothy Schneider
Publisher: Viking Pr
ISBN: UOM:39015022010790
Release Date: 1991-07-01
Genre: History

Uses excerpts from diaries, memoirs, letters, and newspaper accounts to depict the experiences of wartime nurses, entertainers, canteen workers, interpreters, and journalists

The Second Line of Defense

Author: Lynn Dumenil
Publisher: UNC Press Books
ISBN: 9781469631226
Release Date: 2017-02-07
Genre: Social Science

In tracing the rise of the modern idea of the American "new woman," Lynn Dumenil examines World War I's surprising impact on women and, in turn, women's impact on the war. Telling the stories of a diverse group of women, including African Americans, dissidents, pacifists, reformers, and industrial workers, Dumenil analyzes both the roadblocks and opportunities they faced. She richly explores the ways in which women helped the United States mobilize for the largest military endeavor in the nation's history. Dumenil shows how women activists staked their claim to loyal citizenship by framing their war work as homefront volunteers, overseas nurses, factory laborers, and support personnel as "the second line of defense." But in assessing the impact of these contributions on traditional gender roles, Dumenil finds that portrayals of these new modern women did not always match with real and enduring change. Extensively researched and drawing upon popular culture sources as well as archival material, The Second Line of Defense offers a comprehensive study of American women and war and frames them in the broader context of the social, cultural, and political history of the era.