Uncle Sam Wants You

Author: Christopher Capozzola
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199830961
Release Date: 2010-04-12
Genre: History

Based on a rich array of sources that capture the voices of both political leaders and ordinary Americans, Uncle Sam Wants You offers a vivid and provocative new interpretation of American political history, revealing how the tensions of mass mobilization during World War I led to a significant increase in power for the federal government. Christopher Capozzola shows how, when the war began, Americans at first mobilized society by stressing duty, obligation, and responsibility over rights and freedoms. But the heated temper of war quickly unleashed coercion on an unprecedented scale, making wartime America the scene of some of the nation's most serious political violence, including notorious episodes of outright mob violence. To solve this problem, Americans turned over increasing amounts of power to the federal government. In the end, whether they were some of the four million men drafted under the Selective Service Act or the tens of millions of home-front volunteers, Americans of the World War I era created a new American state, and new ways of being American citizens.

Uncle Sam Wants You

Author: Christopher Capozzola
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 9780195335491
Release Date: 2008-07-21
Genre: History

Examines the effects of participation in World War I on society and government in the United States, including the increased tolerance of legal controls on behavior and the condemnation of those who did not conform.

Uncle Sam Wants You

Author: Christopher Capozzola
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019971486X
Release Date: 2008-07-21
Genre: History

Based on a rich array of sources that capture the voices of both political leaders and ordinary Americans, Uncle Sam Wants You offers a vivid and provocative new interpretation of American political history, revealing how the tensions of mass mobilization during World War I led to a significant increase in power for the federal government. Christopher Capozzola shows how, when the war began, Americans at first mobilized society by stressing duty, obligation, and responsibility over rights and freedoms. But the heated temper of war quickly unleashed coercion on an unprecedented scale, making wartime America the scene of some of the nation's most serious political violence, including notorious episodes of outright mob violence. To solve this problem, Americans turned over increasing amounts of power to the federal government. In the end, whether they were some of the four million men drafted under the Selective Service Act or the tens of millions of home-front volunteers, Americans of the World War I era created a new American state, and new ways of being American citizens.

Freedom Struggles

Author: Adriane Danette Lentz-Smith
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674054189
Release Date: 2010-03-01
Genre: History

For many of the 200,000 black soldiers sent to Europe with the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I, encounters with French civilians and colonial African troops led them to imagine a world beyond Jim Crow. They returned home to join activists working to make that world real. In narrating the efforts of African American soldiers and activists to gain full citizenship rights as recompense for military service, Adriane Lentz-Smith illuminates how World War I mobilized a generation.

Over Here

Author: David M. Kennedy
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0195173996
Release Date: 2004-09-16
Genre: History

Considers the implications of America's involvement in World War I for intellectuals, minorities, politicians, and economists.

Making Men Moral

Author: Nancy K. Bristow
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 9780814786239
Release Date: 1997-10-01
Genre: History

On May 29, 1917, Mrs. E. M. Craise, citizen of Denver, Colorado, penned a letter to President Woodrow Wilson, which concluded, We have surrendered to your absolute control our hearts' dearest treasures--our sons. If their precious bodies that have cost us so dear should be torn to shreds by German shot and shells we will try to live on in the hope of meeting them again in the blessed Country of happy reunions. But, Mr. President, if the hell-holes that infest their training camps should trip up their unwary feet and they be returned to us besotted degenerate wrecks of their former selves cursed with that hell-born craving for alcohol, we can have no such hope. Anxious about the United States' pending entry into the Great War, fearful that their sons would be polluted by the scourges of prostitution, venereal disease, illicit sex, and drink that ran rampant in the training camps, countless Americans sent such missives to their government officials. In response to this deluge, President Wilson created the Commission on Training Camp Activities to ensure the purity of the camp environment. Training camps would henceforth mold not only soldiers, but model citizens who, after the war, would return to their communities, spreading white, urban, middle-class values throughout the country. What began as a federal program designed to eliminate sexually transmitted diseases soon mushroomed into a powerful social force intent on replacing America's many cultures with a single, homogenous one. Though committed to the positive methods of education and recreation, the reformers did not hesitate to employ repression when necessary. Those not conforming to the prescribed vision of masculinity often faced exclusion from the reformers' idealized society, or sometimes even imprisonment. Social engineering ruled the day. Combining social, cultural, and military history and illustrating the deep divisions among reformers themselves, Nancy K. Bristow, with the aid of dozens of evocative photographs, here brings to life a pivotal era in the history of the U.S., revealing the complex relationship between the nation's competing cultures, progressive reform efforts, and the Great War.

Black Patriots and Loyalists

Author: Alan Gilbert
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226293073
Release Date: 2012-04-20
Genre: History

We commonly think of the American Revolution as simply the war for independence from British colonial rule. But, of course, that independence actually applied to only a portion of the American population—African Americans would still be bound in slavery for nearly another century. In Black Patriots and Loyalists, Alan Gilbert asks us to rethink what we know about the Revolutionary War, to realize that while white Americans were fighting for their freedom, black Americans were joining the British imperial forces to gain theirs. There were actually two wars being waged at once: a political revolution for independence from Britain and a social revolution for emancipation and equality. Drawing upon recently discovered archival material, Gilbert traces the intense imperial and patriot rivalry over recruitment and emancipation that led both sides to depend on blacks. As well, he presents persuasive evidence that slavery could have been abolished during the Revolution itself if either side had fully pursued the military advantage of freeing slaves and pressing them into combat—as when Washington formed the all-black and Native American First Rhode Island Regimen and Lord Dunmore freed slaves and indentured servants to fight for the British. Gilbert's extensive research reveals that free blacks on both sides played a crucial and underappreciated role in the actual fighting. Black Patriots and Loyalists contends that the struggle for emancipation was not only basic to the Revolution itself, but was a rousing force that would inspire freedom movements like the abolition societies of the North and the black loyalist pilgrimages for freedom in places such as Nova Scotia and Sierra Leone. In this thought-provoking history, Gilbert illuminates how the fight for abolition and equality—not just for the independence of the few but for the freedom and self-government of the many—has been central to the American story from its inception.

A Date Which Will Live

Author: Emily S. Rosenberg
Publisher: Duke University Press
ISBN: 082233206X
Release Date: 2003-08-25
Genre: History

December 7, 1941--the date of Japan's surprise attack on the U.S. fleet at Pearl Harbor--is "a date which will live" in American history and memory, but the stories that "will live" and the meanings assigned to them are hardly settled or singular. In movies, books, and magazines, at memorial sites, in ceremonies, and on television and the internet, Pearl Harbor lives in a thousand guises and symbolizes dozens of historical lessons. A Date Which Will Live examines Pearl Harbor in American history and memory. Historian Emily S. Rosenberg does not try to determine the truth of this iconic event, but rather to explore the variety of cultural meanings--and political contests--that have been attached to the words "Pearl Harbor." Rosenberg considers the emergence of Pearl Harbor symbolism from multiple perspectives: as the day of infamy that upended ideas of U.S. military preparedness, the attack that opened a "back-door" for U.S. involvement in World War II, a commemorated event, and a rupture in American-Japanese relations. She explores the numerous, overlapping cultural contexts that have contributed to Pearl Harbor's resurgence in American memory since the fiftieth-year anniversary in 1991. Among these she identifies a "memory boom" in American culture, the movement to exonerate commanders Admiral Husband Kimmel and General Walter Short, and the political mobilization of various groups during the culture and history "wars" of the 1990s, as well as the effect of the blockbuster movie Titanic in propelling historical spectacles such as the film Pearl Harbor to theater screens. Rosenberg also discusses the use of Pearl Harbor as a historical frame for understanding the events of September 11, 2001.

Torchbearers of Democracy

Author: Chad L. Williams
Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press
ISBN: 0807899356
Release Date: 2010-09-20
Genre: Social Science

For the 380,000 African American soldiers who fought in World War I, Woodrow Wilson's charge to make the world "safe for democracy" carried life-or-death meaning. Chad L. Williams reveals the central role of African American soldiers in the global conflict and how they, along with race activists and ordinary citizens, committed to fighting for democracy at home and beyond. Using a diverse range of sources, Torchbearers of Democracy reclaims the legacy of African American soldiers and veterans and connects their history to issues such as the obligations of citizenship, combat and labor, diaspora and internationalism, homecoming and racial violence, "New Negro" militancy, and African American memories of the war.

The Second Line of Defense

Author: Lynn Dumenil
Publisher: UNC Press Books
ISBN: 9781469631226
Release Date: 2017-02-07
Genre: Social Science

In tracing the rise of the modern idea of the American "new woman," Lynn Dumenil examines World War I's surprising impact on women and, in turn, women's impact on the war. Telling the stories of a diverse group of women, including African Americans, dissidents, pacifists, reformers, and industrial workers, Dumenil analyzes both the roadblocks and opportunities they faced. She richly explores the ways in which women helped the United States mobilize for the largest military endeavor in the nation's history. Dumenil shows how women activists staked their claim to loyal citizenship by framing their war work as homefront volunteers, overseas nurses, factory laborers, and support personnel as "the second line of defense." But in assessing the impact of these contributions on traditional gender roles, Dumenil finds that portrayals of these new modern women did not always match with real and enduring change. Extensively researched and drawing upon popular culture sources as well as archival material, The Second Line of Defense offers a comprehensive study of American women and war and frames them in the broader context of the social, cultural, and political history of the era.

World War I and the American Constitution

Author: William G. Ross
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781108179430
Release Date: 2017-02-27
Genre: History

The First World War profoundly affected the American political system by transforming constitutional law and providing the predicate for the modern administrative state. In this groundbreaking study, William G. Ross examines the social, political, economic and legal forces that generated this rapid change. Ross explains how the war increased federal and state economic regulatory powers, transferred power from Congress to the President, and altered federalism by enhancing the powers of the federal government. He demonstrates how social changes generated by the war provided a catalyst for the expansion of personal liberties, including freedom of speech, freedom of the press, and the rights of women, racial minorities, and industrial workers. Through a study of constitutional law, gender, race, economics, labor, the prohibition movement, international relations, civil liberties, and society, this book provides a major contribution to our understanding of the development of the American Constitution.

Charles Gates Dawes

Author: Annette B. Dunlap
Publisher: Northwestern University Press
ISBN: 9780810134201
Release Date: 2016-09-15
Genre: Biography & Autobiography

Charles Gates Dawes: A Life is the first comprehensive biography of an American in whose fascinating story contemporary readers can follow the struggles and triumphs of early twentieth-century America and Europe. Dawes is most known today as vice president of the United States under Calvin Coolidge, but he also distinguished himself and his hometown of Evanston, Illinois, on the world stage with the 1925 Nobel Peace Prize. This engrossing biography traces how, when the punitive armistice that ended the First World War resulted in a disabled, restive Germany, Dawes’s diplomatic legerdemain averted war through a renegotiation of Germany’s debt repayments. Dawes’s diplomatic and political achievements, however, were only the illustrious capstones to a multifaceted career that included military service, law, finance, and business on the local, state, national, and global stages. In every arena of his life, he combined the social graces of the Gilded Age with the spirit of service of the Progressive Era. Despite his life of disciplined service, Dawes was an ebullient and irrepressible figure. Dawes’s salty language was often colorful fodder for tabloid and magazine writers of his era. In this captivating biography, Annette B. Dunlap recounts the story of an original American who enlightened and enlivened his world. This book was published in cooperation with the Evanston History Center and with generous support from the Tawani Foundation.

Making the World Safe

Author: Julia Irwin
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199766406
Release Date: 2013-05-23
Genre: History

A history of the relationship between the United States and foreign countries through its humanitarian interventions in the early 20th century.