The Universe as Automaton

Author: Klaus Mainzer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642234771
Release Date: 2011-10-01
Genre: Science

This Brief is an essay at the interface of philosophy and complexity research, trying to inspire the reader with new ideas and new conceptual developments of cellular automata. Going beyond the numerical experiments of Steven Wolfram, it is argued that cellular automata must be considered complex dynamical systems in their own right, requiring appropriate analytical models in order to find precise answers and predictions in the universe of cellular automata. Indeed, eventually we have to ask whether cellular automata can be considered models of the real world and, conversely, whether there are limits to our modern approach of attributing the world, and the universe for that matter, essentially a digital reality.

The Little Book of Time

Author: Klaus Mainzer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781475743326
Release Date: 2013-03-14
Genre: Science

Time is fundamental to our experience, but remains mysterious. This book shows how philosophers and scientists have tried to grapple with this most extraordinary of ordinary phenomena. From the attempts of early astronomers to reconcile solar and lunar and terrestrial reckonings, to the huge expansions and contractions of time consciousness brought on by scientists as diverse as Newton, Darwin, and Einstein, this book shows how time is as much a matter of human choice as it is a matter of scientific precision.

Thinking in Complexity

Author: Klaus Mainzer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783662132142
Release Date: 2013-03-09
Genre: Science

This new edition also treats smart materials and artificial life. A new chapter on information and computational dynamics takes up many recent discussions in the community.

Complex Systems and Society

Author: Nicola Bellomo
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781461472421
Release Date: 2013-05-24
Genre: Mathematics

This work aims to foster the interdisciplinary dialogue between mathematicians and socio-economic scientists. Interaction among scholars and practitioners traditionally coming from different research areas is necessary more than ever in order to better understand many real-world problems we face today. On the one hand, mathematicians need economists and social scientists to better address the methodologies they design in a more realistic way; on the other hand, economists and social scientists need to be aware of sound mathematical modelling tools in order to understand and, ultimately, solve the complex problems they encounter in their research. With this goal in mind, this work is designed to take into account a multidisciplinary approach that will encourage the transfer of knowledge, ideas, and methodology from one discipline to the other. In particular, the work has three main themes: Demystifying and unravelling complex systems; Introducing models of individual behaviours in the social and economic sciences; Modelling socio-economic sciences as complex living systems. Specific tools examined in the work include a recently developed modelling approach using stochastic game theory within the framework of statistical mechanics and progressing up to modeling Darwinian evolution. Special attention is also devoted to social network theory as a fundamental instrument for the understanding of socio-economic systems.​

Chaos and Complex Systems

Author: Stavros G. Stavrinides
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642339141
Release Date: 2013-03-19
Genre: Science

Complexity Science and Chaos Theory are fascinating areas of scientific research with wide-ranging applications. The interdisciplinary nature and ubiquity of complexity and chaos are features that provides scientists with a motivation to pursue general theoretical tools and frameworks. Complex systems give rise to emergent behaviors, which in turn produce novel and interesting phenomena in science, engineering, as well as in the socio-economic sciences. The aim of all Symposia on Chaos and Complex Systems (CCS) is to bring together scientists, engineers, economists and social scientists, and to discuss the latest insights and results obtained in the area of corresponding nonlinear-system complex (chaotic) behavior. Especially for the “4th International Interdisciplinary Chaos Symposium on Chaos and Complex Systems,” which took place April 29th to May 2nd, 2012 in Antalya, Turkey, the scope of the symposium had been further enlarged so as to encompass the presentation of work from circuits to econophysics, and from nonlinear analysis to the history of chaos theory. The corresponding proceedings collected in this volume address a broad spectrum of contemporary topics, including but not limited to networks, circuits, systems, biology, evolution and ecology, nonlinear dynamics and pattern formation, as well as neural, psychological, psycho-social, socio-economic, management complexity and global systems.

First Complex Systems Digital Campus World E Conference 2015

Author: Pierre Parrend
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319459011
Release Date: 2016-12-24
Genre: Science

This book contains the proceedings as well as invited papers for the first annual conference of the UNESCO Unitwin Complex System Digital Campus (CSDC), which is an international initiative gathering 120 Universities on four continents, and structured in ten E-Departments. First Complex Systems Digital Campus World E-Conference 2015 features chapters from the latest research results on theoretical questions of complex systems and their experimental domains. The content contained bridges the gap between the individual and the collective within complex systems science and new integrative sciences on topics such as: genes to organisms to ecosystems, atoms to materials to products, and digital media to the Internet. The conference breaks new ground through a dedicated video-conferencing system – a concept at the heart of the international UNESCO UniTwin, embracing scientists from low-income and distant countries. This book promotes an integrated system of research, education, and training. It also aims at contributing to global development by taking into account its social, economic, and cultural dimensions. First Complex Systems Digital Campus World E-Conference 2015 will appeal to students and researchers working in the fields of complex systems, statistical physics, computational intelligence, and biological physics.

Beyond the Second Law

Author: Roderick C. Dewar
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783642401541
Release Date: 2013-12-02
Genre: Technology & Engineering

The Second Law, a cornerstone of thermodynamics, governs the average direction of dissipative, non-equilibrium processes. But it says nothing about their actual rates or the probability of fluctuations about the average. This interdisciplinary book, written and peer-reviewed by international experts, presents recent advances in the search for new non-equilibrium principles beyond the Second Law, and their applications to a wide range of systems across physics, chemistry and biology. Beyond The Second Law brings together traditionally isolated areas of non-equilibrium research and highlights potentially fruitful connections between them, with entropy production playing the unifying role. Key theoretical concepts include the Maximum Entropy Production principle, the Fluctuation Theorem, and the Maximum Entropy method of statistical inference. Applications of these principles are illustrated in such diverse fields as climatology, cosmology, crystal growth morphology, Earth system science, environmental physics, evolutionary biology and technology, fluid turbulence, microbial biogeochemistry, plasma physics, and radiative transport, using a wide variety of analytical and experimental techniques. Beyond The Second Law will appeal to students and researchers wishing to gain an understanding of entropy production and its central place in the science of non-equilibrium systems – both in detail and in terms of the bigger picture.

Security for Cloud Storage Systems

Author: Kan Yang
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781461478737
Release Date: 2013-07-01
Genre: Computers

Cloud storage is an important service of cloud computing, which offers service for data owners to host their data in the cloud. This new paradigm of data hosting and data access services introduces two major security concerns. The first is the protection of data integrity. Data owners may not fully trust the cloud server and worry that data stored in the cloud could be corrupted or even removed. The second is data access control. Data owners may worry that some dishonest servers provide data access to users that are not permitted for profit gain and thus they can no longer rely on the servers for access control. To protect the data integrity in the cloud, an efficient and secure dynamic auditing protocol is introduced, which can support dynamic auditing and batch auditing. To ensure the data security in the cloud, two efficient and secure data access control schemes are introduced in this brief: ABAC for Single-authority Systems and DAC-MACS for Multi-authority Systems. While Ciphertext-Policy Attribute-based Encryption (CP-ABE) is a promising technique for access control of encrypted data, the existing schemes cannot be directly applied to data access control for cloud storage systems because of the attribute revocation problem. To solve the attribute revocation problem, new Revocable CP-ABE methods are proposed in both ABAC and DAC-MACS.

Complex and Adaptive Dynamical Systems

Author: Claudius Gros
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319162652
Release Date: 2015-04-01
Genre: Science

This primer offers readers an introduction to the central concepts that form our modern understanding of complex and emergent behavior, together with detailed coverage of accompanying mathematical methods. All calculations are presented step by step and are easy to follow. This new fourth edition has been fully reorganized and includes new chapters, figures and exercises. The core aspects of modern complex system sciences are presented in the first chapters, covering network theory, dynamical systems, bifurcation and catastrophe theory, chaos and adaptive processes, together with the principle of self-organization in reaction-diffusion systems and social animals. Modern information theoretical principles are treated in further chapters, together with the concept of self-organized criticality, gene regulation networks, hypercycles and coevolutionary avalanches, synchronization phenomena, absorbing phase transitions and the cognitive system approach to the brain. Technical course prerequisites are the standard mathematical tools for an advanced undergraduate course in the natural sciences or engineering. Each chapter includes exercises and suggestions for further reading, and the solutions to all exercises are provided in the last chapter. From the reviews of previous editions: This is a very interesting introductory book written for a broad audience of graduate students in natural sciences and engineering. It can be equally well used both for teac hing and self-education. Very well structured and every topic is illustrated with simple and motivating examples. This is a true guidebook to the world of complex nonlinear phenomena. (Ilya Pavlyukevich, Zentralblatt MATH, Vol. 1146, 2008) Claudius Gros’ Complex and Adaptive Dynamical Systems: A Primer is a welcome addition to the literature. A particular strength of the book is its emphasis on analytical techniques for studying complex systems. (David P. Feldman, Physics Today, July, 2009).

Design and Control of Swarm Dynamics

Author: Roland Bouffanais
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9789812877512
Release Date: 2015-10-16
Genre: Technology & Engineering

The book is about the key elements required for designing, building and controlling effective artificial swarms comprised of multiple moving physical agents. Therefore this book presents the fundamentals of each of those key elements in the particular frame of dynamic swarming, specifically exposing the profound connections between these elements and establish some general design principles for swarming behaviors. This scientific endeavor requires an inter-disciplinary approach: biomimetic inspiration from ethology and ecology, study of social information flow, analysis of temporal and adaptive signaling network of interaction, considerations of control of networked real-time systems, and lastly, elements of complex adaptive dynamical systems. This book offers a completely new perspective on the scientific understanding of dynamic collective behaviors thanks to its multi-disciplinary approach and its focus on artificial swarm of physical agents. Two of the key problems in understanding the emergence of swarm intelligent behaviors are identifying the social interaction rules a.k.a. the behavioral algorithm and uncovering how information flows between swarming agents. While most books about swarm dynamics have been focusing on the former, this book emphasizes the much-less discussed topic of distributed information flow, always with the aim of establishing general design principles.

The Nonlinear World

Author: Yoshitsugu Oono
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9784431540298
Release Date: 2012-10-30
Genre: Science

The most important characteristic of the “world filled with nonlinearity” is the existence of scale interference: disparate space–time scales interfere with each other. Thus, the effects of unknowable scales invade the world that we can observe directly. This leads to various peculiar phenomena such as chaos, critical phenomena, and complex biological phenomena, among others. Conceptual analysis and phenomenology are the keys to describe and understand phenomena that are subject to scale interference, because precise description of unfamiliar phenomena requires precise concepts and their phenomenological description. The book starts with an illustration of conceptual analysis in terms of chaos and randomness, and goes on to explain renormalization group philosophy as an approach to phenomenology. Then, abduction is outlined as a way to express what we have understood about the world. The book concludes with discussions on how we can approach genuinely complex phenomena, including biological phenomena. The main target of this volume is young people who have just started to appreciate the world seriously. The author also wishes the book to be helpful to those who have been observing the world, but who wish to appreciate it afresh from a different angle.

Applications of Chaos and Nonlinear Dynamics in Science and Engineering

Author: Santo Banerjee
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319170374
Release Date: 2015-05-04
Genre: Science

Chaos and nonlinear dynamics initially developed as a new emergent field with its foundation in physics and applied mathematics. The highly generic, interdisciplinary quality of the insights gained in the last few decades has spawned myriad applications in almost all branches of science and technology—and even well beyond. Wherever quantitative modeling and analysis of complex, nonlinear phenomena is required, chaos theory and its methods can play a key role. his fourth volume concentrates on reviewing further relevant contemporary applications of chaotic and nonlinear dynamics as they apply to the various cuttingedge branches of science and engineering. This encompasses, but is not limited to, topics such as synchronization in complex networks and chaotic circuits, time series analysis, ecological and biological patterns, stochastic control theory and vibrations in mechanical systems. Featuring contributions from active and leading research groups, this collection is ideal both as a reference and as a ‘recipe book’ full of tried and tested, successful engineering applications.

Chaos Concepts Control and Constructive Use

Author: Yurii Bolotin
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319424965
Release Date: 2016-10-24
Genre: Science

This book offers a short and concise introduction to the many facets of chaos theory. While the study of chaotic behavior in nonlinear, dynamical systems is a well-established research field with ramifications in all areas of science, there is a lot to be learnt about how chaos can be controlled and, under appropriate conditions, can actually be constructive in the sense of becoming a control parameter for the system under investigation, stochastic resonance being a prime example. The present work stresses the latter aspects and, after recalling the paradigm changes introduced by the concept of chaos, leads the reader skillfully through the basics of chaos control by detailing the relevant algorithms for both Hamiltonian and dissipative systems, among others. The main part of the book is then devoted to the issue of synchronization in chaotic systems, an introduction to stochastic resonance, and a survey of ratchet models. In this second, revised and enlarged edition, two more chapters explore the many interfaces of quantum physics and dynamical systems, examining in turn statistical properties of energy spectra, quantum ratchets, and dynamical tunneling, among others. This text is particularly suitable for non-specialist scientists, engineers, and applied mathematical scientists from related areas, wishing to enter the field quickly and efficiently. From the reviews of the first edition: This book is an excellent introduction to the key concepts and control of chaos in (random) dynamical systems [...] The authors find an outstanding balance between main physical ideas and mathematical terminology to reach their audience in an impressive and lucid manner. This book is ideal for anybody who would like to grasp quickly the main issues related to chaos in discrete and continuous time. Henri Schurz, Zentralblatt MATH, Vol. 1178, 2010.

Network Oriented Modeling

Author: Jan Treur
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319452135
Release Date: 2016-10-06
Genre: Science

This book presents a new approach that can be applied to complex, integrated individual and social human processes. It provides an alternative means of addressing complexity, better suited for its purpose than and effectively complementing traditional strategies involving isolation and separation assumptions. Network-oriented modeling allows high-level cognitive, affective and social models in the form of (cyclic) graphs to be constructed, which can be automatically transformed into executable simulation models. The modeling format used makes it easy to take into account theories and findings about complex cognitive and social processes, which often involve dynamics based on interrelating cycles. Accordingly, it makes it possible to address complex phenomena such as the integration of emotions within cognitive processes of all kinds, of internal simulations of the mental processes of others, and of social phenomena such as shared understandings and collective actions. A variety of sample models – including those for ownership of actions, fear and dreaming, the integration of emotions in joint decision-making based on empathic understanding, and evolving social networks – illustrate the potential of the approach. Dedicated software is available to support building models in a conceptual or graphical manner, transforming them into an executable format and performing simulation experiments. The majority of the material presented has been used and positively evaluated by undergraduate and graduate students and researchers in the cognitive, social and AI domains. Given its detailed coverage, the book is ideally suited as an introduction for graduate and undergraduate students in many different multidisciplinary fields involving cognitive, affective, social, biological, and neuroscience domains.

Physicalism and the Mind

Author: Robert Francescotti
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9789401794510
Release Date: 2014-09-18
Genre: Philosophy

This book addresses a tightly knit cluster of questions in the philosophy of mind. There is the question: Are mental properties identical with physical properties? An affirmative answer would seem to secure the truth of physicalism regarding the mind, i.e., the belief that all mental phenomena obtain solely in virtue of physical phenomena. If the answer is negative, then the question arises: Can this solely in virtue of relation be understood as some kind of dependence short of identity? And answering this requires answering two further questions. Exactly what sort of dependence on the physical does physicalism require, and what is needed for a property or phenomenon to qualify as physical? It is argued that multiple realizability still provides irresistible proof (especially with the possibility of immaterial realizers) that mental properties are not identical with any properties of physics, chemistry, or biology. After refuting various attempts to formulate nonreductive physicalism with the notion of realization, a new definition of physicalism is offered. This definition shows how it could be that the mental depends solely on the physical even if mental properties are not identical with those of the natural sciences. Yet, it is also argued that the sort of psychophysical dependence described is robust enough that if it were to obtain, then in a plausible and robust sense of ‘physical’, mental properties would still qualify as physical properties.