The People Themselves

Author: Larry D. Kramer
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0195306457
Release Date: 2004
Genre: Law

Examines the distinct difference between how the people and the founding fathers viewed the new Constitution and how it is interpreted over two hundred years later and maintains that originally the people were the ones responsible for seeing that its concepts were properly implemented.

The people themselves

Author: Larry Kramer
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0195169182
Release Date: 2004-06-10
Genre: Fiction

The United States Constitution is the foundation of the longest and most successful democratic experiment in modern human history. It serves not only as legal bedrock for the world's most powerful nation-state, but also, more broadly, it reflects that nation's fundamental aspirations and commitments as a society. Who then has the authority to interpret a blueprint of such extraordinary influence? Americans have come to treat the Constitution as something beyond their competence, something whose meaning should be decided by judges, assisted by a cadre of trained lawyers and academics. Yet this submission to a lawyerly elite is a radical and troublesome departure from what was originally the case. For America's founding generation celebrated the central role of "the people" in supplying government with its energy and direction. In this groundbreaking interpretation of America's founding and its concept of constitutionalism, Larry Kramer reveals how the first generations of Americans fought for and gave birth to a very different system from our current one and held a very different understanding of citizenship from that of most Americans today. "Popular sovereignty" was more than an empty abstraction, more than a mythic philosophical justification for government, and the idea of "the people" was more than a flip rhetorical gesture to be used on the campaign trail. Ordinary Americans exercised active control and sovereignty over their Constitution. The constitutionality of governmental action met with vigorous public debate in struggles whose outcomes might be greeted with celebratory feasts and bonfires, or with belligerent resistance. The Constitution remained, fundamentally, an act of popular will: the people's charter, made by the people. And it was "the people themselves" who were responsible for seeing that it was properly interpreted and implemented. With this book, Larry Kramer vaults to the forefront of constitutional theory and interpretation. In the process, he rekindles the original spark of "We, the People," inviting every citizen to join him in reclaiming the Constitution's legacy as, in Franklin D. Roosevelt's words, "a layman's instrument of government" and not "a lawyer's contract."

Zwischen Widerstand und Martyrium

Author: Detlef Garbe
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 9783486594430
Release Date: 1999-01-01
Genre: History

Bis heute gehören die Zeugen Jehovas zu den weitgehend vergessenen Opfern des NS-Regimes. Sie wurden bereits Mitte 1933 und von da an mit unerbittlicher Härte bekämpft. Keine andere Religionsgemeinschaft hat mit einer vergleichbaren Geschlossenheit und Unbeugsamkeit dem nationalsozialistischen Druck widerstanden. Der Bekennermut der "Bibelforscher" beschäftigte zeitweilig höchste Stellen in Justiz, Polizei und SS. Sie waren die einzige Gruppe, die ungeachtet drohender Todesstrafe geschlossen den Kriegsdienst verweigerte. Die Auswertung bislang unbekannter Archivalien, Interviews mit Überlebenden und die kritische Auseinandersetzung mit ihrem Schrifttum bilden die Basis für diese erste umfassende sozialgeschichtliche Darstellung über die Verfolgung der Zeugen Jehovas im Nationalsozialismus. The religious community of Jehovas Witnesses is one of the almost forgotten groups of Nazi victims. Jehovas Witnesses constituted no more than a half per mille of the German population, about 25,000-30,000 people, but they were one of the most fiercely persecuted religious groups in the Third Reich. They even were the first group to be outlawed by the Nazi regime, as early as 1933. In spite of this, they continued in their resistance, eoften arning incarceration in the concentration camps. Even there, they refused to work for the armaments. The collective refusal of their men to serve as soldiers in the war led many of them to their deaths by court martial.

Staat und Verb nde

Author: Wolfgang Streeck
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 9783322942203
Release Date: 2013-03-13
Genre: Social Science

Der Band soll durch theoretische und empirische Beiträge den Stand der Diskussion in der deutschen Politikwissenschaft seit den siebziger Jahren an aufgetretene neue Bedingungen und Fragestellungen heranführen. Insbesondere werden der Einfluß von Deregulierungspolitiken auf den Status von Interessenverbänden, die Lage verbandlicher Interessenvermittlung bei fortschreitender Internationalisierung von Wirtschaft und Politik sowie die Schwierigkeiten bei der Herausbildung von Verbändesystemen in den nachkommunistischen Transformationsgesellschaften behandelt.

The Rescue of Joshua Glover

Author: H. Robert Baker
Publisher: Ohio University Press
ISBN: 9780821442142
Release Date: 2006-12-31
Genre: History

On March 11, 1854, the people of Wisconsin prevented agents of the federal government from carrying away the fugitive slave, Joshua Glover. Assembling in mass outside the Milwaukee courthouse, they demanded that the federal officers respect his civil liberties as they would those of any other citizen of the state. When the officers refused, the crowd took matters into its own hands and rescued Joshua Glover. The federal government brought his rescuers to trial, but the Wisconsin Supreme Court intervened and took the bold step of ruling the Fugitive Slave Act unconstitutional. The Rescue of Joshua Glover delves into the courtroom trials, political battles, and cultural equivocation precipitated by Joshua Glover's brief, but enormously important, appearance in Wisconsin on the eve of the Civil War. H. Robert Baker articulates the many ways in which this case evoked powerful emotions in antebellum America, just as the stage adaptation of Uncle Tom's Cabin was touring the country and stirring antislavery sentiments. Terribly conflicted about race, Americans struggled mightily with a revolutionary heritage that sanctified liberty but also brooked compromise with slavery. Nevertheless, as The Rescue of Joshua Glover demonstrates, they maintained the principle that the people themselves were the last defenders of constitutional liberty, even as Glover's rescue raised troubling questions about citizenship and the place of free blacks in America.

The Will of the People

Author: Barry Friedman
Publisher: Farrar, Straus and Giroux
ISBN: 1429989955
Release Date: 2009-09-29
Genre: Law

In recent years, the justices of the Supreme Court have ruled definitively on such issues as abortion, school prayer, and military tribunals in the war on terror. They decided one of American history's most contested presidential elections. Yet for all their power, the justices never face election and hold their offices for life. This combination of influence and apparent unaccountability has led many to complain that there is something illegitimate—even undemocratic—about judicial authority. In The Will of the People, Barry Friedman challenges that claim by showing that the Court has always been subject to a higher power: the American public. Judicial positions have been abolished, the justices' jurisdiction has been stripped, the Court has been packed, and unpopular decisions have been defied. For at least the past sixty years, the justices have made sure that their decisions do not stray too far from public opinion. Friedman's pathbreaking account of the relationship between popular opinion and the Supreme Court—from the Declaration of Independence to the end of the Rehnquist court in 2005—details how the American people came to accept their most controversial institution and shaped the meaning of the Constitution.

Der gespaltene Westen

Author: Jürgen Habermas
Publisher:
ISBN: 3518123831
Release Date: 2004
Genre: Constitutional law

Der einig geglaubte Westen ist gespalten. Jedoch nicht die Gefahr des internationalen Terrorismus hat diese Entwicklung verursacht, sondern eine Politik der US-Regierung, die das Völkerrecht ignoriert, die Vereinten Nationen an den Rand drängt und den Bruch mit Europa in Kauf nimmt. Die Spaltung zieht sich auch durch Europa und Amerika selbst hindurch. In Deutschland wirkt die Abkehr der amerikanischen Administration und der Eliten von ihren eigenen Traditionen wie ein Lackmustest. Heute zerfällt die chemische Verbindung, aus der die Westorientierung der Bundesrepublik seit Adenauer bestanden hat, in ihre beiden Elemente; opportunistische Anpassung an die hegemoniale Macht trennt sich von intellektueller und moralischer Bindung an die Prinzipien einer westlichen Kultur. Auch im Jahr seines 75. Geburtstages erweist sich der politische Denker Habermas wieder als brillanter Analytiker und Stichwortgeber der Republik und des europäischen Geistes. Der gespaltene Westen versammelt Beiträge, die infolge der Ereignisse vom 11. September 2001 entstanden, darunter der neue, weitausgreifende Essay über die Zukunft des Kantischen Projekts einer weltbürgerlichen Ordnung.

A Distinct Judicial Power

Author: Scott Douglas Gerber
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199765874
Release Date: 2011-05-05
Genre: Law

This title provides a comprehensive critical analysis of the origins of judicial independence in the United States. The book examines the political theory of an independent judiciary and chronicles how each of the original 13 states and their colonial antecedents treated their respective judiciaries.

Wie man die Welt ver ndert

Author: Eric Hobsbawm
Publisher: Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH Co KG
ISBN: 9783446240728
Release Date: 2012-08-27
Genre: Political Science

Wer glaubt, Karl Marx sei tot, der irrt. Die Krise des kapitalistischen Systems hat neues Interesse an seinen Ideen geweckt. Eric Hobsbawm, seit seiner Jugend überzeugter Marxist, zeigt, was wir noch heute von Marx lernen können. Ein Leben lang hat sich der Historiker aus Großbritannien mit den Widersprüchen beschäftigt, die seit der Finanzkrise selbst liberale Ökonomen am Weltbild eines schlichten Kapitalismus zweifeln lassen. Hobsbawms neues Buch zeigt, wie der Marxismus in den letzten 150 Jahren die angeblich alternativlosen Regeln der kapitalistischen Wirtschaft in Frage gestellt und widerlegt hat. In Hobsbawm hat Marx seinen souveränen Interpreten für das 21. Jahrhundert gefunden.

Grundrechtsbindung des Gesetzgebers

Author: Friederike Valerie Lange
Publisher: Mohr Siebeck
ISBN: 3161504208
Release Date: 2010
Genre: Law

English summary: The legislator's commitment to fundamental rights, which is stipulated particularly clearly in the German Basic Law, is a core element of modern constitutionalism. In a comparative study of the constitutions of France and the USA, Friederike Valerie Lange explores the basic concepts and enforcement mechanisms of this commitment to fundamental rights. German description: Die Bindung des Gesetzgebers an die Grundrechte ist im Grundgesetz besonders klar geregelt. Sie ist jedoch auch international Kernelement moderner Verfassungsstaatlichkeit. Im Rechtsvergleich mit den Verfassungen Frankreichs und der USA geht Friederike Valerie Lange Grundvorstellungen und Durchsetzungsmechanismen dieser Grundrechtsbindung nach. Dabei beleuchtet die Autorin auf der Grundlage verschiedener Verfassungstraditionen Handlungspflichten und -grenzen fur den Gesetzgeber, zeigt zugleich aber auch Gestaltungsspielraume auf. Untersucht werden unterschiedlich ausgepragte Grundrechtsdimensionen, Regeln zur Befassung mit Grundrechten im Gesetzgebungsverfahren sowie Kontroll- und Beseitigungspflichten des Parlaments. Zentrales Augenmerk Friederike Valerie Langes gilt der Rolle der Akteure, darunter auch, aber nicht nur der Verfassungsgerichtsbarkeit, fur die Grundrechtskonformitat von Gesetzen.Diese Arbeit wurde mit dem Wissenschaftspreis des Deutschen Bundestags ausgezeichnet.

The Least Examined Branch

Author: Richard W. Bauman
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139460408
Release Date: 2006-07-31
Genre: Law

Unlike most works in constitutional theory, which focus on the role of the courts, this book, first published in 2006, addresses the role of legislatures in a regime of constitutional democracy. Bringing together some of the world's leading constitutional scholars and political scientists, the book addresses legislatures in democratic theory, legislating and deliberating in the constitutional state, constitution-making by legislatures, legislative and popular constitutionalism, and the dialogic role of legislatures, both domestically with other institutions and internationally with other legislatures. The book offers theoretical perspectives as well as case studies of several types of legislation from the United States and Canada. It also addresses the role of legislatures both under the Westminster model and under a separation of powers system.