The Letters of Sigmund Freud and Otto Rank

Author: Sigmund Freud
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 9781421403540
Release Date: 2012
Genre: Biography & Autobiography

Sigmund Freud’s relationship with Otto Rank was the most constant, close, and significant of his professional life. Freud considered Rank to be the most brilliant of his disciples. The two collaborated on psychoanalytic writing, practice, and politics; Rank was the managing director of Freud’s publishing house; and after several years helping Freud update his masterpiece, The Interpretation of Dreams, Rank contributed two chapters. His was the only other name ever to be listed on the title page. This complete collection of the known correspondence between the two brings to life their twenty-year collaboration and their painful break. The 250 letters compiled by E. James Lieberman and Robert Kramer humanize and dramatize psychoanalytic thinking, practice, and organization from 1906 through 1925. The letters concern not just the work and trenchant contemporaneous observations of Freud and Rank but also their friendships, supporters, rivals, families, travels, and other personal and professional matters. Most interestingly, the letters trace Rank’s growing independence, the father-son schism over Rank’s "anti-Oedipal" heresy, his surprising reconciliation with Freud, and the moment when they parted ways permanently. A candid picture of how the pioneers of modern psychotherapy behaved with their patients, colleagues, and families—and each other—the correspondence between Freud and Rank demonstrates how psychoanalysis developed in relation to early twentieth-century science, art, philosophy, and politics. A rich primary source on psychiatry, history, and culture, The Letters of Sigmund Freud and Otto Rank is a cogent and powerful narrative of early psychoanalysis and its two most important personalities.

Acts of Will

Author: E. James Lieberman
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 1439119155
Release Date: 2010-05-11
Genre: Biography & Autobiography

Once Freud's most favoured student and associate, Otto Rank came to be reviled by the psychoanalytic establishment that formerly revered him. This biography exposes the hostile, at time libelious treatment of Rank in the standard histories of psychoanalysis and shows him to be a great analytic pioneer of this century. His influence was felt not only by mental health professionals, but also by such artists and writers as Anais Nin, Henry Miller, Paul Goodman and Max Lerner.

The Trauma of Birth

Author: Otto Rank
Publisher: Ravenio Books
ISBN:
Release Date: 2015-11-04
Genre: Psychology

The following arguments indicate a first attempt to apply the psychoanalytic way of thinking, as such, to the comprehension of the whole development of mankind, even of the actual fact of becoming human. It would be more correct not to use the word “apply,” for it is not a question of one of the usual works on the “Application of Psychoanalysis to the Mental Sciences”; rather it is a matter of making psychoanalytic thought productive for our entire conception of mankind and history. This finally represents the history of mind, that is, the history of the development of the human mind and of the things created by it. This particular viewpoint, still too new to be quite clearly grasped, is made accessible to us through Psychoanalysis by reason of the prodigious extension of our consciousness, which at the present time enables us to recognize part of the deepest Unconscious as such, and to understand its mode of operation. As scientific knowledge itself is no more than a conscious comprehension of previously latent facts, it is only logical that every particle of the extension of our consciousness, gained by analysis, should be converted into understanding. It is now shown at a quite definite point of psychoanalytic knowledge, which we shall soon characterize more definitely, that there is also a considerable part of organic or biological development which can be understood only from the psychical side; that is, from the side which, together with all the residue of development, includes also our own instrument of knowledge, which has suddenly become definitely more efficient through our progressive knowledge of the Unconscious. We have taken certain new individual psychoanalytic experiences solely as a starting-point for a more comprehensive view and for general knowledge; but we believe that in so doing we have opened up the way to something essentially different from the hitherto prevailing “application” of Psychoanalysis. Thus we also lay stress on the fact that we want to keep ourselves free from an overestimation of the psychoanalytic doctrine of the Unconscious as applied to therapy, without thereby departing from the psychoanalytic way of thinking. But at the same time we extend this line of thought in both directions. It is, then, no accident that Psychoanalysis, as soon as it began to develop from a therapeutic procedure into a doctrine of the Unconscious, almost simultaneously deviating from its original medical field, invaded and enriched wellnigh every mental science, and finally itself became one of the most important of mental movements of the present day. The psychic patient, from whose material and by whose help Psychoanalysis was discovered and developed, will always remain the native source for further investigation and extension of the doctrine. Yet this origin is of no more importance today than, for instance, the country from which Columbus set forth, and which furnished the bold explorer with practical means for his voyage.

The Correspondence of Sigmund Freud and S ndor Ferenczi 1914 1919

Author: Sigmund Freud
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674174194
Release Date: 1993
Genre: Psychology

The nation-shattering events of World War I form a somber canvas for the exchanges of the two correspondents in Volume 2 (July 1914 through December 1919). Uncertainty pervades these letters: Will Ferenczi be called up? Will food and fuel-and cigar-shortages continue? Will Freud's three enlisted sons and son-in-law come through the war intact? And will Freud's "problem-child," psychoanalysis, survive?

Letters of Sigmund Freud

Author: Sigmund Freud
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 0486271056
Release Date: 1960
Genre: Psychology

First extensive selection of Freud's correspondence: 315 letters to Einstein, Jung, H. G. Wells, Thomas Mann, many others. Numerous love letters to Martha Bernays. Bibliography. Footnotes.

The Double

Author: Otto Rank
Publisher: UNC Press Books
ISBN: 9781469610214
Release Date: 2012-12-01
Genre: Psychology

Alive, fresh, and stimulating, the theme of The Double comprises the issues of identity, narcissism, and the fear of death--actually the core of human existence. Rank's book is primarily a study of the double as it appeared in striking examples in German, French, Russian, English, and American literature from Goethe to Oscar Wilde. Originally published in 1971. A UNC Press Enduring Edition -- UNC Press Enduring Editions use the latest in digital technology to make available again books from our distinguished backlist that were previously out of print. These editions are published unaltered from the original, and are presented in affordable paperback formats, bringing readers both historical and cultural value.

A history of the case study

Author: Birgit Lang
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9781526106124
Release Date: 2017-04-12
Genre: Psychology

This collection tells the story of the case study genre at a time when it became the genre par excellence for discussing human sexuality across the humanities and life sciences.It is a transcontinental journey from the imperial world of fin-de-siècle Central Europe to the interwar metropolises of Weimar Germany and to the United States of America in the post-war years. Foregrounding the figures of case study pioneers, and highlighting their often radical engagements with the genre, the book scrutinises the case writing practices of Sigmund Freud and his predecessor sexologist Richard von Krafft-Ebing; writers including Leopold von Sacher-Masoch and Alfred Döblin; Weimar intellectuals such as Erich Wulffen and psychoanalyst Viola Bernard. The results are important new insights into the continuing legacy of such writers and into the agency increasingly claimed by the readerships that emerged with the development of modernity.

After Freud Left

Author: John Burnham
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226081397
Release Date: 2012-04-16
Genre: Psychology

From August 29 to September 21, 1909, Sigmund Freud visited the United States, where he gave five lectures at Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts. This volume brings together a stunning gallery of leading historians of psychoanalysis and of American culture to consider the broad history of psychoanalysis in America and to reflect on what has happened to Freud’s legacy in the United States in the century since his visit. There has been a flood of recent scholarship on Freud’s life and on the European and world history of psychoanalysis, but historians have produced relatively little on the proliferation of psychoanalytic thinking in the United States, where Freud’s work had monumental intellectual and social impact. The essays in After Freud Left provide readers with insights and perspectives to help them understand the uniqueness of Americans’ psychoanalytic thinking, as well as the forms in which the legacy of Freud remains active in the United States in the twenty-first century. After Freud Left will be essential reading for anyone interested in twentieth-century American history, general intellectual and cultural history, and psychology and psychiatry.

The Cut and the Building of Psychoanalysis Volume II

Author: Carlo Bonomi
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 9781317584957
Release Date: 2017-07-14
Genre: Psychology

The Cut and the Building of Psychoanalysis Volume II explores how the unformulated trauma associated with surgery performed on Emma Eckstein’s genitalia, and the hallucinations that Eckstein experienced, influenced Freud’s self-analysis, oriented his biological speculations, and significantly influenced one of his closest followers, Sándor Ferenczi. This thought-provoking and incisive work shows how Ferenczi filled the gaps left open in Freud’s system and proved to be a useful example for examining how such gaps are transmitted from one mind to another. The first of three parts explores how the mind of the child was viewed prior to Freud, what events led Freud to formulate and later abandon his theory of actual trauma, and why Freud turned to the phylogenetic past. Bonomi delves deeper into Freud’s self-analysis in part two and reexamines the possible reasons that led Freud to discard the impact and effects of trauma. The final part explores the interpersonal effects of Freud’s self-dissection dream, arguing that Ferenczi managed to dream aspects of Freud’s self-dissection dream on various occasions, which helped him to incorporate a part of Freud’s psyche that Freud had himself failed to integrate. This book questions the subject of a woman’s body, using discourse between Freud and Ferenczi to build a more integrated and accurate narrative of the origins and theories of psychoanalysis. It will therefore be of interest to psychoanalysts, psychotherapists, psychologists and social scientists, as well as historians of medicine, science and human rights. Bonomi’s work introduces new arguments to the contemporary debate surrounding Female Genital Mutilation.

Empathy

Author: Susan Lanzoni
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 9780300240924
Release Date: 2018-09-25
Genre: Psychology

A surprising, sweeping, and deeply researched history of empathy—from late-nineteenth-century German aesthetics to mirror neurons†‹ Empathy: A History tells the fascinating and largely unknown story of the first appearance of “empathy” in 1908 and tracks its shifting meanings over the following century. Despite empathy’s ubiquity today, few realize that it began as a translation of Einfühlung or “in-feeling” in German psychological aesthetics that described how spectators projected their own feelings and movements into objects of art and nature. Remarkably, this early conception of empathy transformed into its opposite over the ensuing decades. Social scientists and clinical psychologists refashioned empathy to require the deliberate putting aside of one’s feelings to more accurately understand another’s. By the end of World War II, interpersonal empathy entered the mainstream, appearing in advice columns, popular radio and TV, and later in public forums on civil rights. Even as neuroscientists continue to map the brain correlates of empathy, its many dimensions still elude strict scientific description. This meticulously researched book uncovers empathy’s historical layers, offering a rich portrait of the tension between the reach of one’s own imagination and the realities of others’ experiences.

Dreaming by the Book

Author: Lydia Marinelli
Publisher: Other Press, LLC
ISBN: 1590510097
Release Date: 2003
Genre: Psychology

The authors provide strong arguments toward the case that psychoanalytic theory is the outcome of collective and conflictual processes, revealing that The Interpretation of Dreams is inextricably intertwined with the formation of the psychoanalytic movement and its bifurcations."--BOOK JACKET.

Essential Papers on Literature and Psychoanalysis

Author: Emanuel Berman
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 9780814711859
Release Date: 1993-01-01
Genre: Literary Criticism

In the first comprehensive study of election law since the Supreme Court decided Bush v. Gore, Richard L. Hasen rethinks the Court’s role in regulating elections. Drawing on the case files of the Warren, Burger, and Rehnquist courts, Hasen roots the Court’s intervention in political process cases to the landmark 1962 case, Baker v. Carr. The case opened the courts to a variety of election law disputes, to the point that the courts now control and direct major aspects of the American electoral process. The Supreme Court does have a crucial role to play in protecting a socially constructed “core” of political equality principles, contends Hasen, but it should leave contested questions of political equality to the political process itself. Under this standard, many of the Court’s most important election law cases from Baker to Bush have been wrongly decided.

International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis Alain de Mijolla 2005

Author: Thomson-Gale
Publisher: Bukupedia
ISBN:
Release Date: 2005-06-15
Genre: Psychology

This preface outlines the history and options of an editorial undertaking which, since it took shape gradually over a ten-year period, could naturally not be brought up to date in every detail. I hope that what follows will answer most of the questions of readers taken aback by such and such an omission or such and such an editorial decision. My most important concern, however, is that these remarks should help elicit the indispensable additions and corrections that it is to be hoped will be submitted as time goes on. To participate in the step-by-step construction of an international dictionary of psychoanalysis is a strange adventure, marked not only by enthusiasm but also from time to time by disillusion. The process might well be compared to the education of children, a realistic view of which (sometimes attributed to Freud) asserts that one may be almost certain that one’s hopes will not be fully realized. All the same, the years I spent with the editorial board assigning and patiently gathering in the more than fifteen hundred articles comprising this work, and the subsequent years preparing all this material for publication, have been among the most exciting I have known. One reason was the variety and cordiality of the international connections that the project created; another was the growing awareness of the vigorous multifacetedness of psychoanalysis as a whole, which has been evolving for over a century now within so many different nations, languages and cultures. The charge of dogmatism, too often leveled at psychoanalysis, simply evaporates in face of the heterogeneity apparent to anyone who explores the many ways in which psychoanalytic theory and practice are understood and experienced around the world. Freud’s metapsychological concepts, which he called ‘‘Grundbegriffe’’— a set of foundations few in number but solidly anchored—have constantly demonstrated their usefulness, and they have endured almost unchanged. On the other hand, most Freudian, post-Freudian or even para-Freudian notions are like so many living organisms—ever prone to modification, and tending to be forgotten and (sometimes) resurrected; above all, they are subject to divergent interpretations, reflecting the element of the unforeseeable that is inevitably present for any analyst who refuses to be tied down by rigid theoretical models. Such divergences result too from the lessons of clinical practice and the temporary or permanent changes which that experience imposes on analytic theory; they are the traces of an empirical inquiry that has continued unabated from Freud’s earliest tentative explorations to the confrontation with life as it is lived today. The coexistence in this dictionary of ideas that are oftentimes in contradiction with one another, or that have been developed in different ways from one continent to another, is testimony to their main characteristic: they are provisional conceptual tools, and their ephemeral quality indicates that in psychoanalysis, in one sense at least, everything always remains to be discovered, for the questions asked are forever being posed anew. vii Once the idea of this dictionary had been conceived, based on the principle of a diversity of viewpoints, I proposed to the publishers, Calmann-Le´vy, that an editorial board be formed, to be made up of recognized colleagues belonging to French psychoanalytic schools of differing orientations. I owe a great debt of gratitude to the friends who constituted that small group: Professors Sophie de Mijolla-Mellor, Roger Perron, and Bernard Golse, joined during the first stages by Dr. Jacques Angelergues. They all made vital contributions during those crucial early days. It is in their name, moreover, that I shall now describe our work methods and the route we took. At a very early stage, thanks to a letter announcing our plan, we won the allegiance of a number of distinguished psychoanalysts. They became a kind of support committee, and their prestige lent weight to our approach to potential contributors. Simultaneously, we solicited the participation and counsel of not a few researchers known to us from our years as practitioners of psychoanalysis; we were also able to draw on connections built up over the fifteen-year existence of the International Association for the History of Psychoanalysis (IAHP). In this way a group of ‘‘advisors’’ was assembled, each of whom was asked to assume responsibility for a particular segment of our vast field of operations, to suggest to the editorial committee those concepts or individuals that they felt should absolutely be included as entries in the panoramic vision of the dictionary, and to identify the authors who in their view would be the best fitted to write those articles. Their advice was gratefully received and closely followed. At the same time, we consulted a good number of indexes of existing psychoanalytic works in order to reach a first list of concepts; and the IAHP’s Revue Internationale d’histoire de la psychanalyse (International Review of the History of Psychoanalysis; discontinued in 1992) was a good source in determining which figures or events were the most frequently cited. In 1995 and 1996, at our editorial committee meetings, we debated all the proposed topics thus accumulated, rejecting some and adding others, until we arrived at a list that, truth to tell, was never completely finalized until the very last days before the manuscript was delivered. Our choices were made in a collegial spirit, before each of us was put in charge of a variable number of entries to assign to their respective authors along with general composition and format guidelines intended to impose some measure of uniformity on the immensely varied material to be produced. Since almost a third of the entries commissioned were written in languages other than French, our commitment to an international approach was indeed undeviating, but there is no denying that this dictionary was conceived and realized by psychoanalysts trained and practicing in France. The selection of topics and the content of the entries may well reveal a somewhat ‘‘French’’ cast of mind. How indeed could it be otherwise? But it is my sincere hope that foreign readers will adopt an actively critical attitude in this connection, by suggesting, even contributing, additions. Nothing could be more in tune with our desire for the widest possible opening onto the world at large. On the other hand, of course, by opting for a great diversity of contributors we risked losing a sense of unity, and unity is reassuring. We were quite aware that alert critics were bound to underscore the lacunae, the inadequacies, even the outright contradictions that would appear among entries written, say, by a French author, an English or American analyst, and a colleague from South America—each loyal, moreover, to a particular theoretical orientation. Similarly, the very topics chosen by our advisors must perforce reflect their personal judgments rather than ours. Occasionally we editors proposed additional subjects, but by and large we allowed the advisors’ selection to stand, out of respect for the agreement we had with them; in any event, it would have ill behooved the editorial board or the editor-in-chief to claim a knowledge superior to that of the advisors whom we had chosen as our guides in the matter. PREFACE TO THE FRENCH EDITION viii INTERNATIONAL DI CTIONARY OF PSYCHOANALYSIS It should be noted that despite our request that authors abide by specified space limitations, some were so carried away by their attachment to their assigned topic that they turned in longer contributions than anticipated. In some cases we were obliged to ask for significant cuts, and I should like to thank all contributors concerned for their goodnatured and prompt acquiescence to what were surely painful self-amputations. As for those who found it easier to abide by our space constraints, their contributions were retained unmodified, at the risk of giving readers the mistaken impression, in view of disparities of length, that we meant either to downplay or to highlight some particular concept or individual. Such editorial changes to submitted manuscript as we made were minor, concerned chiefly with formal aspects (style, ordering of paragraphs, standardization of references, etc.). In no case was any kind of censorship exercised by me or by any member of the editorial board, and no important revision was made without first suggesting it to the author concerned. It was out of the question that any article be published in seriously modified form without the writer’s full approval. All articles are signed, and while the editors are responsible for their publication in the context of this dictionary, they belong in the moral and literary senses to their individual authors. With this in mind, each contributor had a contract and was remunerated appropriately, the main purpose being to acknowledge his or her authorship and to keep our collaboration, friendships notwithstanding, within a clearly legal framework. Let me reiterate, as a last point, that this dictionary was created over a period of years. As with all such enterprises, and especially one involving so many contributors sprinkled across the globe, it was bound to be overtaken here and there by events, with no realistic prospect of a complete updating prior to publication.We must hope that such time-related shortcomings will be rectified as future editions appear. Why is a dictionary of psychoanalysis needed? Interestingly, it was rather late on in the history of psychoanalysis that the call for a clearer definition of Freudian terms, whose precision was threatened by their wider and wider currency, was first heard. The teaching offered before the Second World War at the Berlin and later at the Vienna Institute of Psychoanalysis certainly helped show up the need for analysts in training to have to hand a work that, though not a manual, would furnish precise information on a still vigorously evolving body of theory. The fact that Freud lent his support to the idea, coupled no doubt with the anxiety aroused by the defections and misapplications then plaguing the young discipline of psychoanalysis, provided added impetus. Thanks to Richard F. Sterba’s Reminiscences of a Viennese Psychoanalyst (Detroit: Wayne State U. P., 1982), we are acquainted with the circumstances under which the first tentative attempt to compile a dictionary of psychoanalysis was made: In 1931, at the suggestion of A. J. Storfer, I had undertaken the task of writing a psychoanalytic dictionary (Handwo¨rterbuch der Psychoanalyse). Storfer actually began this work with the definition of a few terms beginning with the letter A, but he found the task too time consuming. He asked me to continue the work with him, to which I agreed. It was a project for which my experience in 1925 and 1926, working on the index of the Gesammelte Schriften von Sigmund Freud (Collected Works of Sigmund Freud) was an enormous help. Soon, however, Storfer lost interest in or courage for the enormous project and dropped out of our partnership. As ransom for dissolving the partnership, he gave me the index galleys and typescript pages and all of the eleven volumes of the Gesamtausgabe. I carried on the work alone. The dictionary was supposed to appear gradually in sixteen issues, of which the first was published on the occasion of Freud’s eightieth birthday, 6 May 1936. The preface to the first issue was the facsimile of a letter Freud wrote to me.When I had finished the letter A of the dictionary, I had given a copy to Anna Freud and asked her to submit it for Freud’s scrutiny. After a short while I received this letter from Freud, which I quote here in English translation: ‘‘Your ’dictionary’ gives me the impression of being a valuable aid to learners and of being a fine PREFACE TO THE FRENCH EDITION INT E RNA T I ONA L DI C T I ONA R Y O F PS Y CHO ANA L Y S I S achievement on its own account. The precision and correctness of the individual entries is in fact of commendable excellence. English and French translations of the headings are not indispensable but would add further to the value of the work. I do not overlook the fact that the path from the letter A to the end of the alphabet is a very long one, and that to follow it would mean an enormous burden of work for you. So do not do it unless you feel an internal obligation—only obey a compulsion of that kind and certainly not any external pressure’’ (pp. 99–100; Freud’s letter translated by James Strachey, Standard Edition, Vol. 22, p. 253). In the wake of this first effort, and very soon in the case of North America, there appeared several dictionaries, or lexicons presenting select passages from Freud’s writings, designed to help define psychoanalytic concepts for analysts in training in the institutes; some went further, offering explanations meant to make psychoanalytic theory more accessible to the general reader. Important works falling under this general rubric are the Glossary of Psycho-Analytical Terms published under the editorship of Ernest Jones in 1924, a harbinger of the Standard Edition; the lists generated by the French Commission Linguistique pour le Vocabulaire Pschanalytique in 1923-24; or the New German-English Psycho- Analytical Vocabulary of 1943. It is also well worth citing the Encyclopedia of Psychoanalysis edited by Ludwig Eidelberg (New York: Free Press, 1968) and Charles Rycroft’s idiosyncratic Critical Dictionary of Psychoanalysis (London: Nelson, 1968). In France, the initiatives of Daniel Lagache began as early as the 1950s, with the start of a dictionary in installments published in Maryse Choisy’s journal Psyche´, and they culminated in that matchless work tool, the Vocabulaire de la psychanalyse, by Jean Laplanche and Jean-Bertrand Pontalis (Paris: PUF, 1967; translated as The Language of Psycho- Analysis, London: Institute of Psycho-Analysis/Hogarth, 1973). It should be borne in mind, however, that Laplanche and Pontalis’s in-depth study was restricted for the most part to the concepts of psychoanalysis as developed in Freud’s work alone. Later French dictionaries of psychoanalysis were also intentionally circumscribed in one way or another. Pierre Fe´dida’s Dictionnaire abre´ge´, comparatif et critique des notions principales de la psychanalyse (Paris: Larousse, 1974) is a case in point. Some works pointed up the theoretical contributions of Jacques Lacan, such as the Dictionnaire de la psychanalyse edited by Roland Chemama and Bernard Vandermersche (Paris: Larousse, 1993; expanded edition, 1998), or Pierre Kaufmann’s L’Apport freudien (The Freudian Contribution). Kaufmann’s book (Paris: Bordas, 1993) is presented as a psychoanalytic encyclopedia rather than a dictionary, which would presumably be more condensed. In fact, despite the inclusion of a few biographical sketches, very brief, and limited to the main figures in the history of psychoanalysis, the work does not display the diversity and world-wide scope what we have pursued in our own dictionary. Nor does it deal with the principal concepts developed on the basis of practices derived from or collateral to psychoanalysis, such as those of Jungian analytical psychology. Outside France, noteworthy titles—among many others which we have made no attempt to inventory here—include A Dictionary of Kleinian Thought by Robert K. Hinshelwood (London: Free Association Books, 1989), the Bibliographisches Lexicon der Psychoanalyse of Elke Mu¨hlleitner (Tubingen: Diskord, 1992), and Dylan Evans’s Introductory Dictionary of Lacanian Psychoanalysis (London: Routledge, 1996), the first restricted to Kleinians, the second to members of the Vienna Society between 1902 and 1938, and the third to the thought of Jacques Lacan. More recently, in the United States, Burness E. Moore and Bernard D. Fine have edited Psychoanalysis: The Major Concepts (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995), which elaborates in a distinctly encyclopedic manner on some forty major psychoanalytic themes. The present dictionary differs markedly in fact from all its predecessors in the field, including Elizabeth Roudinesco and Michel Plon’s Dictionnaire de la psychanalyse (Paris: PREFACE TO THE FRENCH EDITION x INTERNATIONAL DI CTIONARY OF PSYCHOANALYSIS Fayard, 1997) or the collected psychoanalytic articles of the French Encyclopaedia Universalis (1997). It is the only work that presents not just some nine hundred concepts or ideas, but also three hundred and sixty biographies of eminent psychoanalysts from around the world, one hundred and seventy of their most noted works, and fifty countries where psychoanalysis has taken root; more than a hundred entries deal with events that have punctuated the history of psychoanalysis in its multifarious lines of development; the institutions that have embodied that development are likewise described in detail, as are the contributions of movements, such as analytical psychology and individual psychology, which stemmed from psychoanalysis. A chronological approach was a guiding principle, and even if it could not be followed in every single entry, our contributors were urged to hew fast to a historical perspective. Only thus can theoretical choices be relativized so that they lose their rigidly fixed character and reveal themselves to be variable according to time and place. By offering a dais to a large number of psychoanalysts of different theoretical and practical persuasions, moreover, we hoped to arrive at a kind of overall picture that was contradictory precisely because it was alive—a candid shot, as it were, of psychoanalysis today, complete with the more or less conflict-prone schools in the context of which it has developed up to now and, it is to be hoped, will continue to evolve in the future. Our intention was to distinguish our dictionary as clearly as possible from works written by a small number of collaborators expressing the point of view of a particular psychoanalytic group or tendency. All the same, it must be understood that we believe unequivocally that psychoanalysis was conceived and has developed in the context of Freudian ideas. The reference to Freud is cardinal in this work, and other theoretical and practical options have a place here only insofar as they have a direct or indirect, temporary or permanent connection with Freud, with Freud’s history, or with the history of the psychoanalytic movement that Freud founded. Psychoanalysis was created as the twentieth century opened, and it developed along with that century, affecting its historical, cultural and moral character by reason of the new way of thinking it represented. The reader should not therefore be surprised to find entries here whose subjects are writers, philosophers—even a literary movement like Surrealism, or such events as the First and Second World Wars. But in such cases we chose not to offer a detailed and biographical or historical account, or a complete account of an individual’s work, but rather to confine ourselves to the subject’s relationship to psychoanalysis. This also makes it possible, however, to trace the ways in which the sound and fury of the world reverberated within psychoanalysis, causing it to change or readapt. It should be remembered, too, that if psychoanalysis has a closer intimacy with the individual’s psychic suffering than do other approaches, this is attributable to the intense personal involvement of those who helped refine its powers; for this reason we paid particular attention to the biography of the pioneers and their chief successors. Readers who find certain biographical details merely anecdotal are urged to bear in mind that no theoretical proposition should be entirely detached from the conscious and unconscious life of its originator, and this goes for Freud as much as for anyone else. We have nevertheless refrained from any hasty or ‘‘wild’’ interpretations of individual figures: nothing could be more radically at odds with the psychoanalytic approach than to pass judgment on a human being in just a few lines. It was indeed never the mission of this dictionary to rank individuals or tendencies. Of course, it is impossible to avoid assuming criteria of worth, but even these cannot claim to exist sub specie aeternitatis; rather, they are mainly reflections—setting aside the enthusiasm of a particular author for his or her subject—of the spirit of the times or of geogra- Fayard, 1997) or the collected psychoanalytic articles of the French Encyclopaedia Universalis (1997). It is the only work that presents not just some nine hundred concepts or ideas, but also three hundred and sixty biographies of eminent psychoanalysts from around the world, one hundred and seventy of their most noted works, and fifty countries where psychoanalysis has taken root; more than a hundred entries deal with events that have punctuated the history of psychoanalysis in its multifarious lines of development; the institutions that have embodied that development are likewise described in detail, as are the contributions of movements, such as analytical psychology and individual psychology, which stemmed from psychoanalysis. A chronological approach was a guiding principle, and even if it could not be followed in every single entry, our contributors were urged to hew fast to a historical perspective. Only thus can theoretical choices be relativized so that they lose their rigidly fixed character and reveal themselves to be variable according to time and place. By offering a dais to a large number of psychoanalysts of different theoretical and practical persuasions, moreover, we hoped to arrive at a kind of overall picture that was contradictory precisely because it was alive—a candid shot, as it were, of psychoanalysis today, complete with the more or less conflict-prone schools in the context of which it has developed up to now and, it is to be hoped, will continue to evolve in the future. Our intention was to distinguish our dictionary as clearly as possible from works written by a small number of collaborators expressing the point of view of a particular psychoanalytic group or tendency. All the same, it must be understood that we believe unequivocally that psychoanalysis was conceived and has developed in the context of Freudian ideas. The reference to Freud is cardinal in this work, and other theoretical and practical options have a place here only insofar as they have a direct or indirect, temporary or permanent connection with Freud, with Freud’s history, or with the history of the psychoanalytic movement that Freud founded. Psychoanalysis was created as the twentieth century opened, and it developed along with that century, affecting its historical, cultural and moral character by reason of the new way of thinking it represented. The reader should not therefore be surprised to find entries here whose subjects are writers, philosophers—even a literary movement like Surrealism, or such events as the First and Second World Wars. But in such cases we chose not to offer a detailed and biographical or historical account, or a complete account of an individual’s work, but rather to confine ourselves to the subject’s relationship to psychoanalysis. This also makes it possible, however, to trace the ways in which the sound and fury of the world reverberated within psychoanalysis, causing it to change or readapt. It should be remembered, too, that if psychoanalysis has a closer intimacy with the individual’s psychic suffering than do other approaches, this is attributable to the intense personal involvement of those who helped refine its powers; for this reason we paid particular attention to the biography of the pioneers and their chief successors. Readers who find certain biographical details merely anecdotal are urged to bear in mind that no theoretical proposition should be entirely detached from the conscious and unconscious life of its originator, and this goes for Freud as much as for anyone else. We have nevertheless refrained from any hasty or ‘‘wild’’ interpretations of individual figures: nothing could be more radically at odds with the psychoanalytic approach than to pass judgment on a human being in just a few lines. It was indeed never the mission of this dictionary to rank individuals or tendencies. Of course, it is impossible to avoid assuming criteria of worth, but even these cannot claim to exist sub specie aeternitatis; rather, they are mainly reflections—setting aside the enthusiasm of a particular author for his or her subject—of the spirit of the times or of geogra- PREFACE TO THE FRENCH EDITION INT E RNA T I ONA L DI C T I ONA R Y O F PS Y CHO ANA L Y S I S phical context. The articles concerned with Jung or Jungian notions were thus assigned to colleagues belonging to the societies of analytical psychology. Matters Adlerian were handled likewise. And topics relating to a Sa´ndor Ferenczi, Melanie Klein, Jacques Lacan or Franc¸oise Dolto were entrusted to writers close to them and their ideas. All is not told— and gossip hounds are likely to be disappointed. In our view, a dictionary such as this is neither holy writ nor pamphlet, but a kind of mirror held up to the time of its writing, bearing all the signs of that time’s fashions and conformities, and addressed to future generations, who with the benefit of hindsight will assuredly be able to read far more between the lines than is discernible to us. With respect to our handling of Freud’s works, we decided that the best way to avoid entanglement in the thickets of editions and translations around the world was to adopt as our basic system of reference the chronological bibliographical tags updated in Ingeborg Meyer-Palmedo and Gerhard Fichtner’s Freud-Bibliographie mitWerkkonkordanz (Frankfurt on the Main: S. Fischer, 1989). Our ‘‘Freud Bibliography’’ lists works of Freud according to this system; in each case the title is given in German and in English, along with a reference where applicable to the GesammelteWerke and to the Standard Edition. It should be noted that we list only those works of Freud that are mentioned in the dictionary. Similarly, the ‘‘General Bibliography’’ is confined to works referred to in the text, and is in no sense intended to replace Alexander Grinstein’s Index of Psychoanalytic Writings (New York: International Universities Press, 1956-75). ‘‘A strange adventure,’’ I wrote at the beginning of this preface, and the reader will perhaps have surmised on the basis of the above description of our modus operandi that the going was not always painless, or without its conflicts and clashes, even its moments of despondency. Yet we were always boosted by encouraging words from friends and colleagues who had got wind of our project in its earliest days and, from near or far, followed its progress throughout. Nor did we ever relinquish the conviction that this dictionary would answer a clear need in the analytic profession and among students or researchers who would find it to be a tool unlike any produced thus far. If there is such a thing as a ‘‘language of psychoanalysis,’’ albeit one considered opaque at times by its critics, we are confident that the present work will show it to be neither a wooden nor a dead language. It has grown up from roots shared by all psychoanalysts, but, as the range of our entries shows, from these common origins have sprung a variety of ‘‘dialects.’’ Each of them—Adlerian, Jungian, Rankian, Ferenczian, Lacanian, or Bionian— has developed in its own way, and inevitably affected the others in the process. Each, to a greater or lesser degree, has weathered conflict, or eclipse and revival—testimony to a salutary psychoanalytic ‘‘heteroglossia,’’ and to the kind of freedom that stimulates thought. The infinite variety of human beings, the diversity of their personal histories and the complexity of a psychological approach that encompasses the dimension of the unconscious can never be forced into the mold of a hypostasized language or submit to the dictates of some Big Brother preparing the ‘‘Newspeak’’ dictionary. You think, I dare say, that our chief job is inventing new words. But not a bit of it! We’re destroying words—scores of them, hundreds of them, every day.We’re cutting the language down to the bone. . . . Don’t you see that the whole aim of Newspeak is to narrow the range of thought? In the end we shall make thoughtcrime literally impossible, because there will be no words in which to express it. Every concept that can ever be needed will be expressed by exactly one word, with its meaning rigidly defined. . . . Every year fewer and fewer words, and the range of consciousness always a little smaller (George Orwell, 1984. London: Secker andWarburg, 1987 [1949], pp. 53–54, 55). Alea jacta est. This work is now in the hands of its readers. They are invited to handle it as they will. To contribute notes or offer corrections. To convey to us their critical thoughts and to suggest topics they would like to see dealt with in the future. Such active expressions PREFACE TO THE FRENCH EDITION xii INTERNATIONAL DI CTIONARY OF PSYCHOANALYSIS of interest would be the best possible reward for me personally and indeed for all those who have lent their hand over these last years to this portrait of psychoanalysis in the world of today. ALAIN DE MIJOLLA PARIS, JUNE 19, 2001 I am thrilled and honored to be a part of the initiative Thomson Gale (represented by FrankMenchaca as well as the highly-effective and ever-smiling Nathalie Duval) has undertaken to share this Dictionary, whose production I directed in France, with an American audience. This enormous and very difficult work has been successfully completed by a highly-motivated team, including (amongst the many others whom I shall not name): Rachel J. Kain, Rita Runchock, and Patricia Kamoun-Bergwerk; the remarkable American advisors Edward Nersessian and Paul Roazen who reviewed all the texts; Nellie Thompson, whose aid was invaluable at various stages in the project; Matthew von Unwerth, who compiled the ‘‘Further Readings’’ sections, and above all, the translators and revisers who fulfilled the difficult task of rendering texts into English that had for the most part been written by authors from France, Spain, Germany, and Portugal. These translators encountered difficulties raised by more than just the languages in which the authors wrote about these psychoanalytic concepts or biographies they were charged with. Despite a common foundation stemming directly from Freuds ideas, divergent conceptions leading them to be grasped from slightly more theoretical versus clinical viewpoints, depending on where one is standing, were necessarily in evidence—a fact that had to be both respected and, at the same time, made more accessible to American readers. However the sheer number of authors and the scope of their starting-points, as much national as related to different schools of psychoanalysis, nonetheless help us to avoid any sort of monolithic thinking, and beckon the reader to go beyond his or her reading of these dictionary entries with research that deepens their insight. For example, we have avoided repeating the precise definitions of terms cited by specific entries that the dictionary defines elsewhere. We have instead trusted that this dictionary would avail itself from page to page, concept to concept, psychoanalyst to psychoanalyst, to the likings of the systematic research or slightly poetic wanderings that constitute the most effective, or the most enlivened, approaches to getting to know a work such as this. In the Preface to the French edition I offer detailed ‘‘directions for use’’ to readers of this work, so there is no need to revisit that subject. Let me rather use the few lines afforded me here to reiterate the particular importance of this American edition—in my eyes at any rate. It speaks English, like most of the countries in the world today, and English is, of course, an indispensable vector for any thought with claims to universality. Since its humble beginnings in Vienna, psychoanalysis has obviously had a global impact not only in the clinical and therapeutic realms, but also in the arenas of culture and thought. The twentieth and early twenty-first centuries have been marked by ideas whose development has deeply affected the existence of each and every one of us. Our sexual and political lives, our xv morality, our ways of understanding our relationships with others-all bear the unmistakable stamp of Freud’s legacy. By virtue of his family background and his many-sided education and training, Freud ended up at the point of intersection of cultural inflluences out of (and against) which psychoanalysis was gradually forged. This dual process, by no means painless, ensured the new discipline a position and multiple functions, which, as we may now plainly see as we look back over the years, have themselves been subject to continual evolution. A procedure for psychopathological investigation, a method with therapeutic aims, or a conceptual apparatus to account for the workings of the psyche (l esprit) in its external productions as well as its corporeal bonds—out of this ideological and scientific past which Freud conveyed, psychoanalysis has, in turn, modified the conditions of research into the most varied domains of knowledge and none, today, may pretend to be totally beyond its influence. No matter what position pharmacology assumes, (and we must believe in its progress), the encounter with the mentally ill, the listening to their discourse and the decryption of their delusional sayings in order to glean their secret message, like the patient reestablishing vanished relational capacities, will forever remain an affair that takes place between two human beings, from one psychical apparatus to another. The hope that inspired Jung and Bleuler when they first took responsibility for the schizophrenics in the Burgho¨ltzi Asylum was as great as their disappointment. This phenomena repeated itself always and everywhere: Psychoanalysis began by appearing as ‘‘The Solution’’ to the unsolvable problems of mental illness. The example of America, beacon of enthusiasms and of disappointments, is illustrative in this respect—even more spectacularly so in that the all-powerful American Psychoanalytic Association permitted only doctors, psychiatrists for the most part, to join its ranks for the better part of 60 years. Such is not the case today. Yet even though this puncturing of belief-systems might make us think of a destructive tidal wave, this investigatory drive remains—a drive that mobilizes psychoanalysts for their research into new clinical terrain, as they attempt to shed light on and treat ever more diverse and grave pathological conditions. One day, no doubt, new psychopathological conceptions will effect another exploratory synthesis of the psyche and its dysfunctions, thereby authorizing new avenues of approach that will once again appear to us as nothing short of miraculous. But in the meantime, the patient and modest relational exchange, which underpins the psychoanalytic approach to patients in the psychical domain, remains todays most developed adjuvant therapy, whose evergreater efficacy and more precise pinpointing may be looked for in the progress of the neurosciences, neurobiology, genetics or immunology. Although it continues to furnish, as Freud suggested, a ‘‘yield of knowledge’’ for other scientific domains, psychoanalysis gains its creative power and persistent originality from its position on the margins, due to the fact of its being the ‘‘other’’ that cannot be integrated into these disciplines, including literature, history, philosophy, etc. It is the ‘‘other’’ which disrupts through its theoretical a priori of a subversive discourse subjacent to all manifest discourse and which, (as the example of Freud himself proves), can never forget that its own words, as well as its thoughts, are condemned to expressing double-meanings, to contradiction, to interrogation; and which could therefore never be thought of as a finished product, a self-enclosed theory, still less a dogma. The turbulent political events of recent years have refueled the diffusion of psychoanalysis into territories that had previously been closed to it. Therefore both theory and practice will have to rub shoulders with new cultures, languages and other philosophical, religious, medical and scientific traditions. No doubt they will thereby come to brave new storms, know new successes and, fleeting declines. But we must always hope they will be capable of enriching themselves with these various contributions. For only thus is the never-ending PREFACE TO THE AMERICAN EDITION xvi INTERNATIONAL DI CTIONARY OF PSYCHOANALYSIS research into the human psyche and its creations embarked upon anew—a quest that constitutes the psychoanalysts true place in the world of yesterday, today and, for an unforeseeable time still, tomorrow. Once again, I am particularly pleased and proud that the American edition of this dictionary is contributing, more so than all those that came before it, to extending and diffusing this perpetual renewal of Freudian thought throughout the world. ALAIN DE MIJOLLA PREFACE research into the human psyche and its creations embarked upon anew—a quest that constitutes the psychoanalysts true place in the world of yesterday, today and, for an unforeseeable time still, tomorrow. Once again, I am particularly pleased and proud that the American edition of this dictionary is contributing, more so than all those that came before it, to extending and diffusing this perpetual renewal of Freudian thought throughout the world. ALAIN DE MIJOLLA