Author: Sondra Schlesinger
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2013-03-09
The publication of this volume of The Viruses entitled The Togaviridae and Flaviviridae comes at an appropriate time. The structure and rep lication strategies of these viruses are now known to be sufficiently di verse to warrant the removal of flaviviruses from the Togaviridae family and establish them as an independent family. Flaviviridae have a special place in the history of virology. The prototype virus-yellow fever virus was the first virus to be identified as the cause of a human disease. Some of the history of this discovery is described in Chapter 1 of this volume; in Chapter 10 the complete sequence of the RNA genome of the virus is presented. This sequence not only defines the primary structure of the viral proteins, it also clarifies the mechanism of translation of the fla vivirus genome. Knowledge of the sequence of the structural proteins of these viruses represents an important step in the potential goal of using purified flavivirus glycoproteins as vaccines. Many of the chapters in this volume focus on the structure and replication of the Togaviridae. These viruses have provided valuable models for studies in cell biology, partic ularly with regard to the cotranslational and posttranslational steps re quired for the synthesis and localization of membrane glycoproteins. Fur thermore, Togaviridae have been pivotal in our growing understanding of how enveloped viruses enter and exit from cells. The broad outlines of the structure and gene expression of Togavir idae and Flaviviridae are known, but important questions remain.
Author: Richard A. Kaslow
Release Date: 2014-09-27
Striking changes have occurred in the world since the publication of the last edition of Viral Infections of Humans. The global population is rapidly approaching 8 billion; climate change is leading to the introduction of new hosts, vectors and virus diseases heretofore never seen in many parts of the world; technological advances have revolutionized the ability to recognize and characterize viruses new and old; vaccines are altering the epidemiological landscape of the diseases they target, in some cases raising the hope of their eradication and remarkably powerful computational tools are enabling not only detection of outbreaks of disease much sooner than in the past but also, through complex mathematical modeling, more accurate prediction of their potential impact. The new Fifth Edition of Viral Infections of Humans captures the both the excitement and frustration of the dynamic struggle between humankind and the viruses that continue to cause immense suffering. It presents the latest concepts, methods and technologies in epidemiology, detection, investigation, modeling and intervention. Updated and entirely new chapters by dozens of experts across the field provide analytic summaries of current knowledge of viruses and prions causing acute syndromes, chronic illnesses and/or malignancies. In sum, this ambitiously expanded volume offers a uniquely comprehensive perspective on viruses in humans, from agents of classic diseases (e.g., hepatitis, measles, polio, rabies and yellow fever), to those with greatest pandemic impact (e.g., influenza and human immunodeficiency virus), to those discovered relatively recently (e.g., henipavirus, metapneumovirus and norovirus). The new Fifth Edition of Viral Infections of Humans is an invaluable reference for students, fellows and established professionals in the fields of microbiology, public health and infectious disease epidemiology, medicine and health policy.
This contributed volume contains 25 chapters from leading international scientists working on dengue and Zika viruses, who came together in Praia do Tofo in Mozambique to discuss the latest developments in the fields of epidemiology, pathogenesis, structural virology, immunology, antiviral drug discovery and development, vaccine efficacy, and mosquito control programs. The meeting venue offered an opportunity to discuss current research on these flaviviruses in an idyllic setting, and also to develop first-hand appreciation of the issues in infectious diseases facing developing countries and of the research gaps in Africa. For readers, who should include basic and clinical researchers in the field and public health professionals, the chapters are organized to provide a comprehensive overview of the various topics in current dengue and Zika virus research. A unique feature of the proceedings of this meeting is the inclusion of the discussions that took place following presentations. These have been transcribed and appended to the end of the relevant chapters, and they form the “salt in the soup” of this book.
Based on the highly successful reference work Viral Pathogenesis published in 1997, this concise, economical version can be used both as an introductory text or for self-education by medical students and biologists alike. This latest edition provides a completely revised overview of the subject with new chapters on innate immunity, emerging viral diseases, and antiviral therapy in a format that is easy to understand without continually referring to additional information. Used by the author in his graduate classes at the University of Pennsylvania, it sets forth the essential principles and discusses the details of how the immune system responds to viral invasion including the treatment and prevention of infection. Illustrated by pertinent examples it is one of the only books devoted exclusively to this topic. * Offers almost a 20% expansion over the first edition * Focuses specifically on viral pathogenesis unlike other texts where only a few chapters are devoted to the topic * Neal Nathanson is one of the primary authorities in the field and has authored chapters on viral pathogenesis in two of the most well known virology and microbiology titles Field's Virology and Topley and Wilson's Microbiology * Now in four color throughout!
Author: Jaap Goudsmit M.D.
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 2004-08-12
Despite vaccines and medicines, we have not succeeded in eradicating the most poisonous viruses in the world, like jaundice, measles, diarrhea, polio, and AIDS, not to mention newcomers like West Nile and SARS. Also, since September 11, it is no longer unthinkable that a terrorist would intentionally spread a virus among people or the food chain. In this book, Jaap Goudsmit argues that there is no such thing as life without viruses for many reasons; including the fact that many viruses spread without any visible signs, and can hide in animals; that there are too many different species of viruses and they multiply much faster than any animal or plant; and that infections strike especially in areas where life is difficult enough already, such as Africa and Asia. However, Goudsmit continues, if viruses hold onto life so stubbornly, perhaps they can be useful to other living beings. Do viruses offer people a better chance of survival in a hostile world? Do viruses make people fitter? Some viruses seem to play a role in the process whereby our genes adapt to the environment. What is it that makes viruses incredibly strong, and can we learn something from it? What is the secret of the enormous "fitness" of viruses? Will viruses spell the end of mankind or will man always be able to offer resistance? This book attempts to answer these and other questions.
Author: Andrew M.Q. King
Release Date: 2011
The practical need to partition the world of viruses into distinguishable, universally agreed upon entities is the ultimate justification for developing a virus classification system. Since 1971, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) operating on behalf of the world community of virologists has taken on the task of developing a single, universal taxonomic scheme for all viruses infecting animals (vertebrate, invertebrates, and protozoa), plants (higher plants and algae), fungi, bacteria, and archaea. The current report builds on the accumulated taxonomic construction of the eight previous reports dating back to 1971 and records the proceedings of the Committee since publication of the last report in 2005. Representing the work of more than 500 virologists worldwide, this report is the authoritative reference for virus organization, distinction, and structure.
Author: Alan J. Cann
Publisher: Academic Press
Release Date: 2015-03-06
Principles of Molecular Virology, Sixth Edition, provides an easily accessible introduction to modern virology, presenting principles in a clear and concise manner. This fully updated edition explores and explains the fundamental aspects of virology, including the structure of virus particles and genome, replication, gene expression, infection, pathogenesis and subviral agents. In addition, this update reflects advances made in the field, including HIV pathogenesis, cryoelectron microscopy, bioinformatics, and RNA interference. Provides a conceptual approach to the principles of molecular virology, with important examples of new advances in virology Includes online resources for students and instructors New concepts in this edition include coverage of newly discovered and emergent viruses such as MERS and Ebola Presents new and updated information on bioinformatics and metagenomics Contains updated learning outcomes and further reading for each chapter
Author: Leonard C. Norkin
Release Date: 2010
"Based on the author's experiences teaching virology for more than 35 years, Virology: Molecular Biology and Pathogenesis enables readers to develop a deep understanding of fundamental virology by emphasizing principles and discussing viruses in the context of virus families. Moreover, individual virus families are examined within the context of the Baltimore classification system, a key unifying theme that allows readers to assume basic facts about the replication strategy of a virus based on the natureof its genome."--BOOK JACKET.
Author: John M. Walker
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2008-09-04
Recent advances in the biosciences have led to a range of powerful new technologies, particularly nucleic acid, protein and cell-based methodologies. The most recent insights have come to affect how scientists investigate and define cellular processes at the molecular level. This book expands upon the techniques included in the first edition, providing theory, outlines of practical procedures, and applications for a range of techniques. Written by a well-established panel of research scientists, the book provides an up-to-date collection of methods used regularly in the authors’ own research programs.
Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
Release Date: 2016-09-21
Pathogens transmitted among humans, animals, or plants by insects and arthropod vectors have been responsible for significant morbidity and mortality throughout recorded history. Such vector-borne diseases â€" including malaria, dengue, yellow fever, and plague â€" together accounted for more human disease and death in the 17th through early 20th centuries than all other causes combined. Over the past three decades, previously controlled vector-borne diseases have resurged or reemerged in new geographic locations, and several newly identified pathogens and vectors have triggered disease outbreaks in plants and animals, including humans. Domestic and international capabilities to detect, identify, and effectively respond to vector-borne diseases are limited. Few vaccines have been developed against vector-borne pathogens. At the same time, drug resistance has developed in vector-borne pathogens while their vectors are increasingly resistant to insecticide controls. Furthermore, the ranks of scientists trained to conduct research in key fields including medical entomology, vector ecology, and tropical medicine have dwindled, threatening prospects for addressing vector-borne diseases now and in the future. In June 2007, as these circumstances became alarmingly apparent, the Forum on Microbial Threats hosted a workshop to explore the dynamic relationships among host, pathogen(s), vector(s), and ecosystems that characterize vector-borne diseases. Revisiting this topic in September 2014, the Forum organized a workshop to examine trends and patterns in the incidence and prevalence of vector-borne diseases in an increasingly interconnected and ecologically disturbed world, as well as recent developments to meet these dynamic threats. Participants examined the emergence and global movement of vector-borne diseases, research priorities for understanding their biology and ecology, and global preparedness for and progress toward their prevention, control, and mitigation. This report summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.
Author: Steven A. Frank
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Release Date: 2002
From HIV to influenza, the battle between infectious agents and the immune system is at the heart of disease. Knowledge of how and why parasites vary to escape recognition by the immune system is central to vaccine design, the control of epidemics, and our fundamental understanding of parasite ecology and evolution. As the first comprehensive synthesis of parasite variation at the molecular, population, and evolutionary levels, this book is essential reading for students and researchers throughout biology and biomedicine. The author uses an evolutionary perspective to meld the terms and findings of molecular biology, immunology, pathogen biology, and population dynamics. This multidisciplinary approach offers newcomers a readable introduction while giving specialists an invaluable guide to allied subjects. Every aspect of the immune response is presented in the functional context of parasite recognition and defense--an emphasis that gives structure to a tremendous amount of data and brings into sharp focus the great complexity of immunology. The problems that end each chapter set the challenge for future research, and the text includes extensive discussion of HIV, influenza, foot-and-mouth disease, and many other pathogens. This is the only book that treats in an integrated way all factors affecting variation in infectious disease. It is a superb teaching tool and a rich source of ideas for new and experienced researchers. For molecular biologists, immunologists, and evolutionary biologists, this book provides new insight into infectious agents, immunity, and the evolution of infectious disease.
Author: Joel Cracraft
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 2004-07-22
This edited volume is provides an authoritative synthesis of knowledge about the history of life. All the major groups of organisms are treated, by the leading workers in their fields. With sections on: The Importance of Knowing the Tree of Life; The Origin and Radiation of Life on Earth; The Relationships of Green Plants; The Relationships of Fungi; and The Relationships of Animals. This book should prove indispensable for evolutionary biologists, taxonomists, ecologists interested in biodiversity, and as a baseline sourcebook for organismic biologists, botanists, and microbiologists. An essential reference in this fundamental area.
Author: Ole Lund
Publisher: MIT Press
Release Date: 2005
Using bioinformatics methods to generate a systems-level view of the immune system; description of the main biological concepts and the new data-driven algorithms. Despite the fact that advanced bioinformatics methodologies have not been used as extensively in immunology as in other subdisciplines within biology, research in immunological bioinformatics has already developed models of components of the immune system that can be combined and that may help develop therapies, vaccines, and diagnostic tools for such diseases as AIDS, malaria, and cancer. In a broader perspective, specialized bioinformatics methods in immunology make possible for the first time a systems-level understanding of the immune system. The traditional approaches to immunology are reductionist, avoiding complexity but providing detailed knowledge of a single event, cell, or molecular entity. Today, a variety of experimental bioinformatics techniques connected to the sequencing of the human genome provides a sound scientific basis for a comprehensive description of the complex immunological processes. This book offers a description of bioinformatics techniques as they are applied to immunology, including a succinct account of the main biological concepts for students and researchers with backgrounds in mathematics, statistics, and computer science as well as explanations of the new data-driven algorithms in the context of biological data that will be useful for immunologists, biologists, and biochemists working on vaccine design. In each chapter the authors show interesting biological insights gained from the bioinformatics approach. The book concludes by explaining how all the methods presented in the book can be integrated to identify immunogenic regions in microorganisms and host genomes.
Author: Rubén Bueno-Marí
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Release Date: 2015-07-06
Zoonoses are currently considered as one of the most important threats for public health worldwide. Zoonoses can be defined as any disease or infection that is naturally transmissible from vertebrate or invertebrate animals to humans and vice-versa. Approximately 75% of recently emerging infectious diseases affecting humans are diseases of animal origin; approximately 60% of all human pathogens are zoonotic. All types of potential pathogenic agents, including viruses, parasites, bacteria and fungi, can cause these zoonotic infections. From the wide range of potential vectors of zoonoses, insects are probably those of major significance due to their abundance, high plasticity and adaptability to different kinds of pathogens, high degrees of synanthropism in several groups and difficulties to apply effective programs of population control. Although ticks, flies, cockroaches, bugs and fleas are excellent insects capable to transmit viruses, parasites and bacteria, undoubtedly mosquitoes are the most important disease vectors. Mosquito borne diseases like malaria, dengue, equine encephalitis, West Nile, Mayaro or Chikungunya are zoonoses with increasing incidence in last years in tropical and temperate countries. Vertebrates can also transmit serious zoonoses, highlighting the role of some carnivorous animals in rabies dissemination or the spread of rodent borne diseases in several rural and urban areas. Moreover, the significance of other food borne zoonoses such as taeniasis, trichinellosis or toxoplasmosis may not been underestimated. According to WHO, FAO and OIE guidelines an emerging zoonotic disease can be defined as a zoonosis that is newly recognized or newly evolved, or that has occurred previously but shows an increase of incidence or expansion in geographical, host or vector range. There are many factors that can provoke or accelerate the emergence of zoonoses, such as environmental changes, habitat modifications, variations of human and animal demography, pathogens and vectors anomalous mobilization related with human practices and globalization, deterioration of the strategies of vector control or changes in pathogen genetics. To reduce public health risks from zoonoses is absolutely necessary to acquire an integrative perspective that includes the study of the complexity of interactions among humans, animals and environment in order to be able to fight against these issues of primary interest for human health. In any case, although zoonoses represent significant public health threats, many of them still remain as neglected diseases and consequently are not prioritized by some health international organisms.
This book discusses the role of the microbiome in rheumatic diseases and details its implications for patient treatment. Recently, with technological advances, there has been significant research into the microbiome. This has enabled us to more profoundly understand its role in our immune system maturation as well as the role played by microorganisms in autoimmunity and the deeply related rheumatic diseases. This book comprehensively explains the emerging microbiome research through the interrelationships of biomedical sciences, including: immunology, microbiology, bioinformatics, and, with special emphasis, the clinical aspect of rheumatology. It examines the interplay between infectious organisms and major autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, juvenile arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and vasculitis, and explains how to apply that knowledge to diagnostic techniques and treatment decisions. The international team of expert authors provides insight into current therapies and future interventions specifically targeting the microbiota and explores the impact of our deeper understanding on enhancing personalized medicine. The Microbiome in Rheumatic Diseases and Infection is an essential resource for rheumatologists, pediatricians, internists, microbiologists, and critical care providers caring for children and adults with rheumatic diseases.