Author: Yoseph Bar-Cohen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2009-04-20
Genre: Technology & Engineering
Making a robot that looks and behaves like a human being has been the subject of many popular science fiction movies and books. Although the development of such a robot facesmanychallenges,themakingofavirtualhumanhaslongbeenpotentiallypossible. With recent advances in various key technologies related to hardware and software, the making of humanlike robots is increasingly becoming an engineering reality. Development of the required hardware that can perform humanlike functions in a lifelike manner has benefitted greatly from development in such technologies as biologically inspired materials, artificial intelligence, artificial vision, and many others. Producing a humanlike robot that makes body and facial expressions, communicates verbally using extensive vocabulary, and interprets speech with high accuracy is ext- mely complicated to engineer. Advances in voice recognition and speech synthesis are increasingly improving communication capabilities. In our daily life we encounter such innovations when we call the telephone operators of most companies today. As robotics technology continues to improve we are approaching the point where, on seeing such a robot, we will respond with ‘‘Wow, this robot looks unbelievably real!’’ just like the reaction to an artificial flower. The accelerating pace of advances in related fields suggests that the emergence of humanlike robots that become part of our daily life seems to be imminent. These robots are expected to raise ethical concerns and may also raise many complex questions related to their interaction with humans.
Mimicking nature – from science fiction to engineering reality Humans have always looked to nature’s inventions as a source of inspiration. The observation of flying birds and insects leads to innovations in aeronautics. Collision avoidance sensors mimic the whiskers of rodents. Optimization algorithms are based on survival of the fittest, the seed-picking process of pigeons, or the behavior of ant colonies. In recent years these efforts have become more intensive, with researchers seeking rules, concepts, and principles of biology to inspire new possibilities in materials, mechanisms, algorithms, and fabrication processes. A review of the current state of the art, Biomimetics: Nature Based Innovation documents key biological solutions that provide a model for innovations in engineering and science. Leading experts address a wide range of topics, including: Artificial senses and organs Mimicry at the cell–materials interface Multiscale modeling of plant cell wall architecture and tissue mechanics The making of biomimetic composites Electroactive polymer (EAP) actuators as artificial muscles EAP-based refreshable braille displays Biomimetic optics from the angles of biology and plants Biomimicry of flying birds, insects, and marine biology Applications of biomimetics in manufacturing, products, and medicine Robotics, including the development of human-like robots Biologically inspired design as a tool for interdisciplinary education The biomimetic process in artistic creation The final chapter outlines the challenges to biomimetic-related innovation and offers a vision for the future. A follow-up to Biomimetics: Biologically Inspired Technologies (2005), this comprehensive reference methodically surveys the latest advances in this rapidly emerging field. It features an abundance of illustrations, including a 32-page full-color insert, and provides extensive references for engineers and scientists interested in delving deeper into the study of biomimetics.
This book challenges conventional notions of biological life and death in the area of robotics, discussing issues such as machine consciousness, autonomous AI, and representations of robots in popular culture. Using philosophical approaches alongside scientific theory, this book offers a compelling critique on the changing nature of both humanity and biological death in an increasingly technological world.
Author: Barton C. Prorok
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2012-09-26
Genre: Technology & Engineering
Mechanics of Biological Systems and Materials, Volume 5: Proceedings of the 2012 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics represents one of seven volumes of technical papers presented at the Society for Experimental Mechanics SEM 12th International Congress & Exposition on Experimental and Applied Mechanics, held at Costa Mesa, California, June 11-14, 2012. The full set of proceedings also includes volumes on Dynamic Behavior of Materials, Challenges in Mechanics of Time-Dependent Materials and Processes in Conventional and Multifunctional Materials, Imaging Methods for Novel Materials and Challenging Applications, Experimental and Applied Mechanics, MEMS and Nanotechnology and, Composite Materials and Joining Technologies for Composites.
This book examines how two distinct strands of research on autonomous robots, evolutionary robotics and humanoid robot research, are converging. The book will be valuable for researchers and postgraduate students working in the areas of evolutionary robotics and bio-inspired computing.
Author: Robert Allen
Release Date: 2010
"Though they may sound like the stuff of science fiction, in fact such inventions represent only the most recent iterations of natural mechanisms that are billions of years old - the focus of the rapidly growing field of biomimetics. Based on the realization that natural selection has for countless eons been conducting trial-and-error experiments with the laws of physics, chemistry, material science, and engineering, biomimetics takes nature as its laboratory, looking to the most successful developments and strategies of an array of plants and animals as a source of technological innovation and ideas. Thus the lotus flower, with its waxy, water-resistant surface, gives us stainproofing; the feathers of raptors become transformable airplane wings; and the nerve-deadening serrations on a mosquito's proboscis are adapted to hypodermics."--pub. desc.
Nature is the world's foremost designer. With billions of years of experience and boasting the most extensive laboratory available, it conducts research in every branch of engineering and science. Nature's designs and capabilities have always inspired technology, from the use of tongs and tweezers to genetic algorithms and autonomous legged robots. Taking a systems perspective rather than focusing narrowly on materials or chemistry aspects, Biomimetics: Biologically Inspired Technologies examines the field from every angle. The book contains pioneering approaches to biomimetics including a new perspective on the mechanization of cognition and intelligence, as well as defense and attack strategies in nature, their applications, and potential. It surveys the field from modeling to applications and from nano- to macro-scales, beginning with an introduction to principles of using biology to inspire designs as well as biological mechanisms as models for technology. This innovative guide discusses evolutionary robotics; genetic algorithms; molecular machines; multifunctional, biological-, and nano- materials; nastic structures inspired by plants; and functional surfaces in biology. Looking inward at biological systems, the book covers the topics of biomimetic materials, structures, control, cognition, artificial muscles, biosensors that mimic senses, artificial organs, and interfaces between engineered and biological systems. The final chapter contemplates the future of the field and outlines the challenges ahead. Featuring extensive illustrations, including a 32-page full-color insert, Biomimetics: Biologically Inspired Technologies provides unmatched breadth of scope as well as lucid illumination of this promising field.
Author: Mark Meadows
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
Release Date: 2010-12-07
Genre: Social Science
We, Robot does for robotics what Michio Kaku's bestselling Physics of the Impossible has done for physics. How close to becoming reality are our favorite science fiction robots? And what might be the real-life consequences of their existence? Robotics and artificial intelligence expert (and science fiction fan) Mark Stephen Meadows answers that question with an irresistible blend of hard science, futurist imagination, solid statistics, pop culture, and plenty of humor.
In concept and execution, this book covers the field of EAP with careful attention to all its key aspects and full infrastructure, including the available materials, analytical models, processing techniques, and characterization methods. In this second edition the reader is brought current on promising advances in EAP that have occurred in electric EAP, electroactive polymer gels, ionomeric polymer-metal composites, carbon nanotube actuators, and more. 'Electroactive Polymer (EAP) Actuators as Artificial Muscles' is a delightful book dealing with one of the hottest topics in biomedical engineering. Virtually every known method of generating displacement is introduced. This book is a must for anyone interested in actuators and sensors, including physicians and biomedical, chemical, electrical, and material engineers. It is thorough in every way.... --Steven S. Saliterman, MD, FACP, Chief of Medicine Methodist Hospital; Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota
It is predicted that robots will surpass human intelligence within the next fifty years. The ever increasing speed of advances in technology and neuroscience, coupled with the creation of super computers and enhanced body parts and artificial limbs, is paving the way for a merger of both human and machine. Devices which were once worn on the body are now being implanted into the body, and as a result, a class of true cyborgs, who are displaying a range of skills beyond those of normal humans-beings, are being created. There are cyborgs which can see colour by hearing sound, others have the ability to detect magnetic fields, some are equipped with telephoto lenses to aid their vision or implanted computers to monitor their heart, and some use thought to communicate with a computer or to manipulate a robotic arm. This is not science-fiction, these are developments that are really happening now, and will continue to develop in the future. However, a range of legal and policy questions has arisen alongside this rise of artificial intelligence. Cyber-Humans provides a deep and unique perspective on the technological future of humanity, and describes how law and policy will be particularly relevant in creating a fair and equal society and protecting the liberties of different life forms which will emerge in the 21st century. Dr Woodrow (Woody) Barfield previously headed up the Sensory Engineering Laboratory, holding the position of Industrial and Systems Engineering Professor at the University of Washington. His research revolves around the design and use of wearable computers and augmented reality systems and holds both JD and LLM degrees in intellectual property law and policy. He has published over 350 articles and major presentations in the areas of computer science, engineering and law. He currently lives in Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
The recent digital and mobile revolutions are a minor blip compared to the next wave of technological change, as everything from robot swarms to skin-top embeddable computers and bio printable organs start appearing in coming years. In this collection of inspiring essays, designers, engineers, and researchers discuss their approaches to experience design for groundbreaking technologies. Design not only provides the framework for how technology works and how it’s used, but also places it in a broader context that includes the total ecosystem with which it interacts and the possibility of unintended consequences. If you’re a UX designer or engineer open to complexity and dissonant ideas, this book is a revelation. Contributors include: Stephen Anderson, PoetPainter, LLC Lisa Caldwell, Brazen UX Martin Charlier, Independent Design Consultant Jeff Faneuff, Carbonite Andy Goodman, Fjord US Camille Goudeseune, Beckman Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Bill Hartman, Essential Design Steven Keating, MIT Media Lab, Mediated Matter Group Brook Kennedy, Virginia Tech Dirk Knemeyer, Involution Studios Barry Kudrowitz, University of Minnesota Gershom Kutliroff, Omek Studio at Intel Michal Levin, Google Matt Nish-Lapidus, Normative Erin Rae Hoffer, Autodesk Marco Righetto, SumAll Juhan Sonin, Involution Studios Scott Stropkay, Essential Design Scott Sullivan, Adaptive Path Hunter Whitney, Hunter Whitney and Associates, Inc. Yaron Yanai, Omek Studio at Intel
Author: Simon Peter van Rysewyk
Release Date: 2014-09-05
Genre: Technology & Engineering
The essays in this book, written by researchers from both humanities and science, describe various theoretical and experimental approaches to adding medical ethics to a machine, what design features are necessary in order to achieve this, philosophical and practical questions concerning justice, rights, decision-making and responsibility in medical contexts, and accurately modeling essential physician-machine-patient relationships. In medical settings, machines are in close proximity with human beings: with patients who are in vulnerable states of health, who have disabilities of various kinds, with the very young or very old and with medical professionals. Machines in these contexts are undertaking important medical tasks that require emotional sensitivity, knowledge of medical codes, human dignity and privacy. As machine technology advances, ethical concerns become more urgent: should medical machines be programmed to follow a code of medical ethics? What theory or theories should constrain medical machine conduct? What design features are required? Should machines share responsibility with humans for the ethical consequences of medical actions? How ought clinical relationships involving machines to be modeled? Is a capacity for empathy and emotion detection necessary? What about consciousness? This collection is the first book that addresses these 21st-century concerns.
Author: Manuel De Landa
Release Date: 1991
In the aftermath of the methodical destruction of Iraq during the Persian Gulf War, the power and efficiency of new computerized weapons and surveillance technology have become chillingly apparent. For Manuel DeLanda, however, this new weaponry has a significance that goes far beyond military applications; he shows how it represents a profound historical shift in the relation of human beings both to machines and to information. The recent emergence of intelligent and autonomous bombs and missiles equipped with artificial perception and decision-making capabilities is, for Delanda, part of a much larger transfer of cognitive structures from humans to machines in the late twentieth century. War in the Age of Intelligent Machines provides a rich panorama of these astonishing developments; it details the mutating history of information analysis and machinic organization from the mobile siege artillery of the Renaissance, the clockwork armies of the Thirty Years War, the Napoleonic campaigns, and the Nazi blitzkrieg up to present-day cybernetic battle-management systems and satellite reconnaissance networks. Much more than a history of warfare, DeLanda's account is an unprecedented philosophical and historical reflection on the changing forms through which human bodies and materials are combined, organized, deployed, and made effective. Manuel DeLanda has published essays on philosophy and film theory. He is a computer programmer and a film artist. A Swerve Edition, distributed for Zone Books