Seismic measurements take many forms, and appear to have a universal role in the Earth Sciences. They are the means for most easily and economically interpreting what lies beneath the visible surface. There are huge economic rewards and losses to be made when interpreting the shallow crust or subsurface more, or less accurately, as the case may be. This book describes seismic behaviour at many scales and from numerous fields in geophysics, tectonophysics and rock physics, and from civil, mining and petroleum engineering. Addressing key items for improved understanding of seismic behaviour, it often interprets seismic measurements in rock mechanics terms, with particular attention to the cause of attenuation, its inverse seismic quality, and the anisotropy of fracture compliances and stiffnesses. Reviewed behaviour stretches over ten orders of magnitude, from micro-crack compliance in laboratory tests to cross-continent attenuation. Between these extremes lie seismic investigation of rock joints, boreholes, block tests, dam and bridge foundations, quarry blasting, canal excavations, hydropower and transportation tunnels, machine bored TBM tunnels, sub-sea sediment and mid-ocean ridge measurements, where the emphasis is on velocity-depth-age models. Attenuation of earthquake coda-waves is also treated, including in-well measurements. In the later chapters, there is a general emphasis on deeper, higher stress, larger scale applications of seismic, such as shear-wave splitting for interpreting the attenuation, anisotropy and orientation of permeable 'open' fracture sets in petroleum reservoirs, and the 4D seismic effects of water-flood, oil production and compaction. The dispersive or frequency dependence of most seismic measurements and their dependence on fracture dimensions and fracture density is emphasized. The possibility that shear displacement may be required to explain permeability at depth is quantified. This book is cross-disciplinary, non-mathematical and phenomenological in nature, containing a wealth of figures and a wide review of the literature from many fields in the Earth Sciences. Including a chapter of conclusions and an extensive subject index, it is a unique reference work for professionals, researchers, university teachers and students working in the fields of geophysics, civil, mining and petroleum engineering. It will be particularly relevant to geophysicists, engineering geologists and geologists who are engaged in the interpretation of seismic measurements in rock and petroleum engineering.
Author: Nick Barton
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Group
Release Date: 2006-10-31
This cross-disciplinary work offers an exceptionally relevant examination of those aspects of earth science dealing with seismic behavior of fractured media. It delivers a lucid exploration of rock mechanics, examining the strengths and weakness of structures beneath the earth’s immediate surface. Deliberately non-mathematical and phenomenological in nature, this volume reviews examples of seismic measurements from various fields under widely varied conditions, supported by a wealth of figures drawn from a broad review of the literature. The last chapters delve into deeper, higher stress, and large scale applications, specifically fractured petroleum reservoirs and earthquake source zone interpretation.
The Handbook of Borehole Acoustics and Rock Physics for Reservoir Characterization combines in a single useful handbook the multidisciplinary domains of the petroleum industry, including the fundamental concepts of rock physics, acoustic logging, waveform processing, and geophysical application modeling through graphical examples derived from field data. It includes results from core studies, together with graphics that validate and support the modeling process, and explores all possible facets of acoustic applications in reservoir evaluation for hydrocarbon exploration, development, and drilling support. The Handbook of Borehole Acoustics and Rock Physics for Reservoir Characterization serves as a technical guide and research reference for oil and gas professionals, scientists, and students in the multidisciplinary field of reservoir characterization through the use of petrosonics. It overviews the fundamentals of borehole acoustics and rock physics, with a focus on reservoir evaluation applications, explores current advancements through updated research, and identifies areas of future growth. Presents theory, application, and limitations of borehole acoustics and rock physics through field examples and case studies Features "Petrosonic Workflows" for various acoustic applications and evaluations, which can be easily adapted for practical reservoir modeling and interpretation Covers the potential advantages of acoustic-based techniques and summarizes key results for easy geophysical application
Author: José M. Carcione
Release Date: 2007-01-24
This book examines the differences between an ideal and a real description of wave propagation, where ideal means an elastic (lossless), isotropic and single-phase medium, and real means an anelastic, anisotropic and multi-phase medium. The analysis starts by introducing the relevant stress-strain relation. This relation and the equations of momentum conservation are combined to give the equation of motion. The differential formulation is written in terms of memory variables, and Biot's theory is used to describe wave propagation in porous media. For each rheology, a plane-wave analysis is performed in order to understand the physics of wave propagation. The book contains a review of the main direct numerical methods for solving the equation of motion in the time and space domains. The emphasis is on geophysical applications for seismic exploration, but researchers in the fields of earthquake seismology, rock acoustics, and material science - including many branches of acoustics of fluids and solids - may also find this text useful. * Presents the fundamentals of wave propagation in anisotropic, anelastic and porus media * Contains a new chapter on the analogy between acoustic and electromagnetic waves, incorporating the subject of electromagnetic waves * Emphasizes geophysics, particularly, seismic exploration for hydrocarbon reservoirs, which is essential for exploration and production of oil
Author: Nick R. Barton
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 2000-01-01
Genre: Technology & Engineering
This practical guide describes the stage-by-stage development of a method for predicting the penetration rate (PR) and the advance rate (AR) for tunnel boring machines based on an expanded version of the Q-value, QTBM. The author analyzes 145 TBM tunnels that total 1,000km in length. He then develops simple formulae to estimate PR and AR from the QTBM value and to back-calculate QTBM from performance data. The book quantitatively explains actual advance rates as high as five m/hr for one day or as low as 0.005 m/hr for several months. It also covers logging methods, empirical TBM tunnel support design, and numerical verification of support.
Author: Carlo Gualtieri
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Release Date: 2012-11-21
Environmental Fluid Mechanics (EFM) studies the motion of air and water at several different scales, the fate and transport of species carried along by these fluids, and the interactions among those flows and geological, biological, and engineered systems. EFM emerged some decades ago as a response to the need for tools to study problems of flow and transport in rivers, estuaries, lakes, groundwater and the atmosphere; it is a topic of increasing importance for decision makers, engineers, and researchers alike. The second edition of the successful textbook "Fluid Mechanics of Environmental Interfaces" is still aimed at providing a comprehensive overview of fluid mechanical processes occurring at the different interfaces existing in the realm of EFM, such as the air-water interface, the air-land interface, the water-sediment interface, the surface water-groundwater interface, the water-vegetation interface, and the water-biological systems interface. Across any of these interfaces mass, momentum, and heat are exchanged through different fluid mechanical processes over various spatial and temporal scales. In this second edition, the unique feature of this book, considering all the topics from the point of view of the concept of environmental interface, was maintained while the chapters were updated and five new chapters have been added to significantly enlarge the coverage of the subject area. The book starts with a chapter introducing the concept of EFM and its scope, scales, processes and systems. Then, the book is structured in three parts with fifteen chapters. Part one, which is composed of four chapters, covers the processes occurring at the interfaces between the atmosphere and the surface of the land and the seas, including the transport of dust and the dispersion of passive substances within the atmosphere. Part two deals in five chapters with the fluid mechanics at the air-water interface at small scales and sediment-water interface, including the advective diffusion of air bubbles, the hyporheic exchange and the tidal bores. Finally, part three discusses in six chapters the processes at the interfaces between fluids and biotic systems, such as transport processes in the soil-vegetation-lower atmosphere system, turbulence and wind above and within the forest canopy, flow and mass transport in vegetated open channels, transport processes to and from benthic plants and animals and coupling between interacting environmental interfaces. Each chapter has an educational part, which is structured in four sections: a synopsis of the chapter, a list of keywords that the reader should have encountered in the chapter, a list of questions and a list of unsolved problems related to the topics covered by the chapter. The book will be of interest to graduate students and researchers in environmental sciences, civil engineering and environmental engineering, (geo)physics, atmospheric science, meteorology, limnology, oceanography, and applied mathematics.
This book contains the Proceedings of EUROCK 2013 – The 2013 ISRM International Symposium, which was held on 23-26 September 2013 in Wrocław, Poland. The Symposium was organized by the ISRM National Group POLAND and the Institute of Geotechnics and Hydrotechnics of the Wrocław Institute of Technology. The focus of the Symposium was on recent developments in the field of rock mechanics with an emphasis on the application of rock mechanics to the extraction of natural resources, securing energy supplies and protecting of the environment surrounding rock that is subjected to engineering activities. The main topics, which were covered in the 150 papers (including six keynote papers) that make up this book are: rock mass characterization, laboratory and in-situ testing, constitutive models and numerical modeling, mathematical modeling of THM processes in rocks, mine design and ground control, underground storage and waste disposal, slope and open pit stability, dynamic phenomena in rock masses, design methodology in rock engineering, mechanical breakage of rocks, rock tunnel excavation and support, petroleum rock mechanics and geological CO2 sequestration. The book also includes the 2013 ISRM Franklin Lecture by A. Goricki on the engineering aspects of geotechnical tunnel design. The book will be of interest and value to rock mechanics researchers as well as to professionals who are involved in the various branches of rock engineering.
During the last two decades rock mechanics in Europe has been undergoing some major transformation. The reduction of mining activities in Europe affects heavily on rock mechanics teaching and research at universities and institutes. At the same time, new emerging activities, notably, underground infrastructure construction, geothermal energy development, radioactive waste and CO2 repository, and natural hazard management, are creating new opportunities of research and engineering. Rock mechanics today is closely associated with, and indeed part of, construction, energy, and environmental engineering. Rock Mechanics in Civil and Environmental Engineering collects 200 papers presented at the European Rock Mechanics Symposium EUROCK 2010, covering recent developments in rock mechanics. Topics include: rock mechanics theory, rock dynamics and rate dependent behaviour, laboratory and field test techniques, numerical modelling methods, and rock mechanics applications to engineering design, tunnel excavation and support, slope stabilisation, radioactive waste repository, petroleum and hydropower energy, earthquake and natural hazard management. The book will be invaluable to academics and engineers involved and interested in rock mechanics and rock.
Deliver an optimal user experience to all devices—including tablets, smartphones, feature phones, laptops, and large screens—by learning the basics of responsive web design. In this hands-on guide, UX designer Clarissa Peterson explains how responsive web design works, and takes you through a responsive workflow from project kickoff to site launch. Ideal for anyone involved in the process of creating websites—not just developers—this book teaches you fundamental strategies and techniques for using HTML and CSS to design websites that not only adapt to any screen size, but also use progressive enhancement to provide a better user experience based on device capabilities such as touchscreens and retina displays. Start with content strategy before creating a visual design Learn why your default design should be for the narrowest screens Explore the HTML elements and CSS properties essential for responsive web design Use media queries to display different CSS styles based on a device’s viewport width Handle elements such as images, typography, and navigation Use performance optimization techniques to make your site lighter and faster
The interpretation of geophysical data in exploration geophysics, well logging, engineering, mining and environmental geophysics requires knowledge of the physical properties of rocks and their correlations. Physical properties are a "key" for combined interpretation techniques. The study of rock physics provides an interdisciplinary treatment of physical properties, whether related to geophysical, geotechnical, hydrological or geological methodology. Physical Properties of Rocks, 2nd Edition, describes the physical fundamentals of rock properties, based on typical experimental results and relevant theories and models. It provides readers with all relevant rock properties and their interrelationships in one concise volume. Furthermore, it guides the reader through experimental and theoretical knowledge in order to handle models and theories in practice. Throughout the book the author focuses on the problems of applied geophysics with respect to exploration and the expanding field of applications in engineering and mining geophysics, geotechnics, hydrology and environmental problems, and the properties under the conditions of the upper Earth crust. Physical Properties of Rocks, Second Edition, guides readers through a systematic presentation of all relevant physical properties and their interrelationships in parallel with experimental and theoretical basic knowledge and a guide for handling core models and theories
Author: Matt Hall
Release Date: 2016-06
The popular geoscience series returns with another volume on exploration geophysics. This time the 46 authors -including seasoned scientists and newcomers to the field -tackle the more quantitative side of the field. There is something for every geoscientist here, especially anyone involved in petroleum, mining, or geothermal exploration."