Rock Quality Seismic Velocity Attenuation and Anisotropy

Author: Nick Barton
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0203964454
Release Date: 2007-01-24
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Seismic measurements take many forms, and appear to have a universal role in the Earth Sciences. They are the means for most easily and economically interpreting what lies beneath the visible surface. There are huge economic rewards and losses to be made when interpreting the shallow crust or subsurface more, or less accurately, as the case may be. This book describes seismic behaviour at many scales and from numerous fields in geophysics, tectonophysics and rock physics, and from civil, mining and petroleum engineering. Addressing key items for improved understanding of seismic behaviour, it often interprets seismic measurements in rock mechanics terms, with particular attention to the cause of attenuation, its inverse seismic quality, and the anisotropy of fracture compliances and stiffnesses. Reviewed behaviour stretches over ten orders of magnitude, from micro-crack compliance in laboratory tests to cross-continent attenuation. Between these extremes lie seismic investigation of rock joints, boreholes, block tests, dam and bridge foundations, quarry blasting, canal excavations, hydropower and transportation tunnels, machine bored TBM tunnels, sub-sea sediment and mid-ocean ridge measurements, where the emphasis is on velocity-depth-age models. Attenuation of earthquake coda-waves is also treated, including in-well measurements. In the later chapters, there is a general emphasis on deeper, higher stress, larger scale applications of seismic, such as shear-wave splitting for interpreting the attenuation, anisotropy and orientation of permeable 'open' fracture sets in petroleum reservoirs, and the 4D seismic effects of water-flood, oil production and compaction. The dispersive or frequency dependence of most seismic measurements and their dependence on fracture dimensions and fracture density is emphasized. The possibility that shear displacement may be required to explain permeability at depth is quantified. This book is cross-disciplinary, non-mathematical and phenomenological in nature, containing a wealth of figures and a wide review of the literature from many fields in the Earth Sciences. Including a chapter of conclusions and an extensive subject index, it is a unique reference work for professionals, researchers, university teachers and students working in the fields of geophysics, civil, mining and petroleum engineering. It will be particularly relevant to geophysicists, engineering geologists and geologists who are engaged in the interpretation of seismic measurements in rock and petroleum engineering.

Handbuch Oberfl chennahe Geothermie

Author: Mathias Bauer
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 9783662503072
Release Date: 2018-03-16
Genre: Science

Das Handbuch vermittelt die Grundlagen wie das thermische Regime der Erde, die oberflächennahe Geologie, geologisch-geophysikalische Grundlagen, zugrunde liegende mathematische Methoden, Risikomanagement und Bohrtechniken. In den angewandten Kapiteln geht es konkret um Geothermieprojekte aus der Sicht eines Bauherren, u.a. um Heizlastberechnung und die hydraulische Abgleichung, daneben um das Projektmanagement, zu berücksichtigende Umweltaspekte, Finanzierung und Fördermöglichkeiten und die Dimensionierung von Anlagen. Auch Verfahrenstechnische Grundlagen, die Maschinentechnik, die Qualitätssicherung und Fragen der Kommunikation und Akzeptanz wie auch der Arbeitssicherheit und des Gesundheitsschutzes werden behandelt. Auch wenn der Schwerpunkt des Handbuches auf Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz liegt, so wird auch auf die Oberflächennahe Geothermiebranche weltweit eingegangen und Herausforderungen wie auch Chancen und Perspektiven aufgezeigt.

Rock Mechanics in Civil and Environmental Engineering

Author: Jian Zhao
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780203840696
Release Date: 2010-05-19
Genre: Technology & Engineering

During the last two decades rock mechanics in Europe has been undergoing some major transformation. The reduction of mining activities in Europe affects heavily on rock mechanics teaching and research at universities and institutes. At the same time, new emerging activities, notably, underground infrastructure construction, geothermal energy development, radioactive waste and CO2 repository, and natural hazard management, are creating new opportunities of research and engineering. Rock mechanics today is closely associated with, and indeed part of, construction, energy, and environmental engineering. Rock Mechanics in Civil and Environmental Engineering collects 200 papers presented at the European Rock Mechanics Symposium EUROCK 2010, covering recent developments in rock mechanics. Topics include: rock mechanics theory, rock dynamics and rate dependent behaviour, laboratory and field test techniques, numerical modelling methods, and rock mechanics applications to engineering design, tunnel excavation and support, slope stabilisation, radioactive waste repository, petroleum and hydropower energy, earthquake and natural hazard management. The book will be invaluable to academics and engineers involved and interested in rock mechanics and rock.

Rock Mechanics for Resources Energy and Environment

Author: Marek Kwasniewski
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781482229073
Release Date: 2013-09-11
Genre: Technology & Engineering

This book contains the Proceedings of EUROCK 2013 – The 2013 ISRM International Symposium, which was held on 23-26 September 2013 in Wrocław, Poland. The Symposium was organized by the ISRM National Group POLAND and the Institute of Geotechnics and Hydrotechnics of the Wrocław Institute of Technology. The focus of the Symposium was on recent developments in the field of rock mechanics with an emphasis on the application of rock mechanics to the extraction of natural resources, securing energy supplies and protecting of the environment surrounding rock that is subjected to engineering activities. The main topics, which were covered in the 150 papers (including six keynote papers) that make up this book are: rock mass characterization, laboratory and in-situ testing, constitutive models and numerical modeling, mathematical modeling of THM processes in rocks, mine design and ground control, underground storage and waste disposal, slope and open pit stability, dynamic phenomena in rock masses, design methodology in rock engineering, mechanical breakage of rocks, rock tunnel excavation and support, petroleum rock mechanics and geological CO2 sequestration. The book also includes the 2013 ISRM Franklin Lecture by A. Goricki on the engineering aspects of geotechnical tunnel design. The book will be of interest and value to rock mechanics researchers as well as to professionals who are involved in the various branches of rock engineering.

Physical Properties of Rocks

Author: Juergen H. Schön
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780081004234
Release Date: 2015-11-26
Genre: Science

The interpretation of geophysical data in exploration geophysics, well logging, engineering, mining and environmental geophysics requires knowledge of the physical properties of rocks and their correlations. Physical properties are a "key" for combined interpretation techniques. The study of rock physics provides an interdisciplinary treatment of physical properties, whether related to geophysical, geotechnical, hydrological or geological methodology. Physical Properties of Rocks, 2nd Edition, describes the physical fundamentals of rock properties, based on typical experimental results and relevant theories and models. It provides readers with all relevant rock properties and their interrelationships in one concise volume. Furthermore, it guides the reader through experimental and theoretical knowledge in order to handle models and theories in practice. Throughout the book the author focuses on the problems of applied geophysics with respect to exploration and the expanding field of applications in engineering and mining geophysics, geotechnics, hydrology and environmental problems, and the properties under the conditions of the upper Earth crust. Physical Properties of Rocks, Second Edition, guides readers through a systematic presentation of all relevant physical properties and their interrelationships in parallel with experimental and theoretical basic knowledge and a guide for handling core models and theories

Geod sie

Author: Wolfgang Torge
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 9783110198171
Release Date: 2008-08-22
Genre: Science

Das Buch gibt einen systematischen Überblick über die grundlegenden Theorien, die Bezugssysteme und die Mess- und Auswertemethoden der Geodäsie, wobei der Beitrag der geodätischen Raumtechniken zur Positionierung und zur Schwerefeldbestimmung besonders herausgestellt wird. Diese Methoden haben auch zu einem für die Praxis wichtigen Wandel in der Einrichtung geodätischer Grundlagennetze geführt. Zur interdisziplinären Geodynamikforschung kann die Geodäsie damit ebenfalls wesentliche Beiträge leisten. Der gegenwärtige Stand der Geodäsie wird durch eine Vielzahl von Beispielen aus Messung, Auswertung und Analyse illustriert, ein umfangreiches Literaturverzeichnis erleichtert ein weitergehendes Studium. Das Buch vermittelt einen umfassenden Überblick über die tiefgreifenden Veränderungen, welche die Geodäsie in den vergangenen zwanzig Jahren erfahren hat.

Geowissenschaften

Author: Christian Robert
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 9783662503935
Release Date: 2018-02-21
Genre: Science

Dieses Lehrbuch bildet in einem Band mit über 800 erklärenden Grafiken und anschaulichen Fotos eine Synthese aller Themen rund um die Geowissenschaften. Die beiden Autoren Christian Robert und Romain Bousquet entwerfen ein umfassendes und kohärentes Bild der Entwicklung unseres Planeten von seinen Anfängen bis hin zu seinem heutigen Zustand. Nach einer grundlegenden Einführung behandelt das Werk vier große Themen: Es beginnt mit der Entstehung des Planeten Erde vom Aufbau des Weltalls bis zur Mineralogie und Stabilität der Materialen. Im zweiten Teil folgen die Kennzeichen der Dynamik der Erde und deren Untersuchung mit geophysikalischen und strukturgeologischen Methoden. Im dritten Teil geht es um den Kreislauf der Gesteine und Gebirgsbildungsprozesse. Abschließend behandeln die Autoren die Rohstoffe der Erde. Im gesamten Werk stellen sie die grundlegenden Aussagen neuen Erkenntnissen und Theorien gegenüber. Ein wichtiges Referenzwerk für Studierende der Geowissenschaften sowie Lehrende und Forschende.

Grenzschicht Theorie

Author: H. Schlichting
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 9783662075548
Release Date: 2013-08-13
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Die Überarbeitung für die 10. deutschsprachige Auflage von Hermann Schlichtings Standardwerk wurde wiederum von Klaus Gersten geleitet, der schon die umfassende Neuformulierung der 9. Auflage vorgenommen hatte. Es wurden durchgängig Aktualisierungen vorgenommen, aber auch das Kapitel 15 von Herbert Oertel jr. neu bearbeitet. Das Buch gibt einen umfassenden Überblick über den Einsatz der Grenzschicht-Theorie in allen Bereichen der Strömungsmechanik. Dabei liegt der Schwerpunkt bei den Umströmungen von Körpern (z.B. Flugzeugaerodynamik). Das Buch wird wieder den Studenten der Strömungsmechanik wie auch Industrie-Ingenieuren ein unverzichtbarer Partner unerschöpflicher Informationen sein.

Analysis of Frequency dependent Anisotropy in VSP Data

Author: Sonja Maultzsch
Publisher:
ISBN: OCLC:606591591
Release Date: 2005
Genre:

The use of seismic anisotropy for the characterization of fracture systems in the subsurface is based upon equivalent medium theories that describe the average elastic response of a fractured material in the long wavelength limit. Traditional equivalent medium models predict a seismic response that is independent of frequency and insensitive to the size of the fractures. Recent observations from seismic data challenge these assumptions. The interpretation of attenuation and velocity dispersion in laboratory data acquired in the kHz to GHz frequency range is based on the concept of squirt flow in porous fluid-saturated rock. A number of studies have also found effects of dispersion in the seismic frequency band, particularly in connection with fracture zones. However, these observations have been lacking quantitative explanation in terms of petrophysical processes, and with regard to wave-induced fluid motion in porous rock seismic data are generally assumed to represent the low frequency limit. Recent work on equivalent medium theories for fractured rock address these issues by incorporating wave-induced uid motion into the modelling, which predicts seismic anisotropy to depend on frequency. I analyse VSP data from five different sedimentary basins that contain naturally fractured hydrocarbon reservoirs. I design processing techniques to investigate whether frequency-dependent anisotropy can be detected in the seismic frequency band. I find broad evidence in support of the concept. Three different attributes are extracted from the data that give evidence of anisotropic dispersion: P-wave attenuation anisotropy, the frequency dependence of the time delay between split shear waves, and attenuation of the slow shear wave compared to the fast one. The measured effects correlate with information on the presence of fractures in the reservoirs of the respective oil and gas fields. For one of the data sets where no anisotropic dispersion is detected, fracture-induced anisotropy is very weak and dominated by polar anisotropy. The observations can be explained by a squirt-flow model for fractured rock. The sensitivity of the modelled response to fluid type and fracture length scales is consistent with the real data results and geological evidence. It may not always be possible to detect frequency-dependent anisotropy in real data depending on data quality and the symmetry of the equivalent anisotropic medium. Nevertheless, the quantitative evidence of anisotropic dispersion from the majority of the VSPs and the correlation with the presence of fractures in the subsurface suggest that it is worthwhile considering these effects in analyses of seismic anisotropy.

Anisotropic Characteristics of Mesoscale Fractures and Applications to Wide Azimuth 3D P wave Seismic Data

Author:
Publisher:
ISBN: OCLC:1051868430
Release Date: 2015
Genre:

Abstract Mesoscale fractures of length on the order of centimeters to meters play a crucial role in fluid flow and hydrocarbon production in fractured reservoirs, and are of great interest to reservoir engineers. Therefore, we need to find a method for obtaining information on mesoscale fractures. Most information on fractures comes from seismic data, specifically through the study of fracture-induced azimuthal anisotropic attributes, such as velocity variation with azimuth (VVAZ), amplitude variation with azimuth (AVAZ) and Q (quality factor for attenuation) variation with azimuth (QVAZ). Using these anisotropic attributes to characterize fracture orientations and densities has been performed for a long time. However, it has not been reported whether these methods can be used to detect mesoscale fractures. In this study, through analysis of the anisotropic response to different lengths of fractures based on a mesoscale fracture model, we find that azimuthal anisotropic attenuation is only sensitive to mesoscale fractures, while the anisotropic velocity represents the response for overall scale fractures. Two models, containing mesoscale fractures of length 1 m and microscale fractures of length 0.01 m, are used to calculate synthetic seismograms. Through analysis of the azimuthal anisotropic attributes (VVAZ, AVAZ and QVAZ) from the synthetic seismograms, the identification ability for microscale and mesoscale fractures is compared. It is observed that QVAZ can be used to invert mesoscale fractures while VVAZ and AVAZ cannot. Finally, the QVAZ method is applied in a wide azimuth 3D P-wave seismic dataset to detect mesoscale fractures and the results are confirmed by imaging loggings. Thus, synthetic seismograms, rock physics analysis and field seismic application demonstrates that anisotropic attenuation is the most effective method to detect mesoscale fractures in wide azimuth 3D P-wave seismic data.

An Introduction to Mining Seismology

Author: Slawomir Jerzy Gibowicz
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080918365
Release Date: 2013-10-22
Genre: Science

An Introduction to Mining Seismology describes comprehensively the modern methods and techniques used to monitor and study seismicity and rockbursts in mines. Key case histories from various worldwide mining districts clearly illustrate and skillfully emphasize the practical aspects of mining seismology. This text is intended as a handbook for geophysicists and mining and rock mechanics engineers working at mines. It will also serve as an essential reference tool for seismologists working at research institutions on local seismicity not necessarily induced by mining. Presents a comprehensive description of seismicity induced by mining worldwide Provides information on optimum network planning and seismic event location procedures in deep mines Covers a broad array of topics including focal mechanism, moment tensor, and double-couple versus non-double-couple seismic events in mines Includes data on source parameters and scaling relations for seismic events in mines