Rationality

Author: Tzu-Wei Hung
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780128046234
Release Date: 2016-09-02
Genre: Psychology

Rationality: Contexts and Constraints is an interdisciplinary reappraisal of the nature of rationality. In method, it is pluralistic, drawing upon the analytic approaches of philosophy, linguistics, neuroscience, and more. These methods guide exploration of the intersection between traditional scholarship and cutting-edge philosophical or scientific research. In this way, the book contributes to development of a suitably revised, comprehensive understanding of rationality, one that befits the 21st century, one that is adequately informed by recent investigations of science, pathology, non-human thought, emotion, and even enigmatic Chinese texts that might previously have seemed to be expressions of irrationalism. Addresses recent challenges and Identifies a direction for future research on rationality Investigates the relationship between rationality and mental disorders, such as delusion and depression Assesses reasoning in artificial intelligence and nonhuman animals Reflects on ancient Chinese Philosophy and possible cultural differences in human psychology Employs philosophical reflection, along with linguistic, probabilistic, and logical techniques

Cognition Agency and Rationality

Author: K. Korta
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789401710701
Release Date: 2013-03-09
Genre: Philosophy

As usual, the Proceedings of the International Colloquium on Cognitive Science include leading-edge work by outstanding researchers in the field. This volume contains three kinds of papers corresponding to three of the main disciplines in cognitive science: philosophy, psychology, and artificial intelligence. The title - Cognition, Agency and Rationality - captures the main issues addressed by the papers. Of course, all are concerned with cognition, but some are especially centred on the very concept of rationality, while others focus on (multiple) agency. The diversity of their disciplinary origins and standpoints not only reflects the main topics and the range of different positions presented at ICCS-97, as well as demonstrating the richness, fruitfulness and diversity of research in cognitive science today.

Action in Context

Author: Anton Leist
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 9783110898798
Release Date: 2007-01-01
Genre: Philosophy

The book illustrates the concept of action in three different contexts - the justification of actions, people’s life history, and pragmatism. Because of its comprehensive view, this volume marks a departure from the atomistic approach of action theory. This in itself raises a number of questions, which the ten contributors to this volume deal with in an instructive manner.

Foundations of Rational Agency

Author: Michael Wooldridge
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789401592048
Release Date: 2013-03-09
Genre: Philosophy

This volume represents an advanced, comprehensive state-of-the-art survey of the field of rational agency as it stands today. It covers the philosophical foundations of rational agency, logical and decision-theoretic approaches to rational agency, multi-agent aspects of rational agency and a number of approaches to programming rational agents. It will be of interest to researchers in logic, mainstream computer science, the philosophy of rational action and agency, and economics.

The Origin of Concepts

Author: Susan Carey
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199887910
Release Date: 2009-05-06
Genre: Psychology

Only human beings have a rich conceptual repertoire with concepts like tort, entropy, Abelian group, mannerism, icon and deconstruction. How have humans constructed these concepts? And once they have been constructed by adults, how do children acquire them? While primarily focusing on the second question, in The Origin of Concepts , Susan Carey shows that the answers to both overlap substantially. Carey begins by characterizing the innate starting point for conceptual development, namely systems of core cognition. Representations of core cognition are the output of dedicated input analyzers, as with perceptual representations, but these core representations differ from perceptual representations in having more abstract contents and richer functional roles. Carey argues that the key to understanding cognitive development lies in recognizing conceptual discontinuities in which new representational systems emerge that have more expressive power than core cognition and are also incommensurate with core cognition and other earlier representational systems. Finally, Carey fleshes out Quinian bootstrapping, a learning mechanism that has been repeatedly sketched in the literature on the history and philosophy of science. She demonstrates that Quinian bootstrapping is a major mechanism in the construction of new representational resources over the course of childrens cognitive development. Carey shows how developmental cognitive science resolves aspects of long-standing philosophical debates about the existence, nature, content, and format of innate knowledge. She also shows that understanding the processes of conceptual development in children illuminates the historical process by which concepts are constructed, and transforms the way we think about philosophical problems about the nature of concepts and the relations between language and thought.

Routledge Philosophy GuideBook to Merleau Ponty and Phenomenology of Perception

Author: Komarine Romdenh-Romluc
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781134290758
Release Date: 2010-09-13
Genre: Philosophy

Maurice Merleau-Ponty (1908 – 1961) is hailed as one of the key philosophers of the twentieth century. Phenomenology of Perception is his most famous and influential work, and an essential text for anyone seeking to understand phenomenology. In this GuideBook Komarine Romdenh-Romluc introduces and assesses: Merleau-Ponty’s life and the background to his philosophy the key themes and arguments of Phenomenology of Perception the continuing importance of Merleau-Ponty’s work to philosophy. Merleau-Ponty and Phenomenology of Perception is an ideal starting point for anyone coming to his great work for the first time. It is essential reading for students of Merleau-Ponty, phenomenology and related subjects in the Humanities and Social Sciences.

Ethical Governance of Emerging Technologies Development

Author: Doridot, Fernand
Publisher: IGI Global
ISBN: 9781466636712
Release Date: 2013-03-31
Genre: Computers

The more integrated technology becomes in our everyday lives and businesses, the more vital it grows that its applications are utilized in an ethical and appropriate way. Ethical Governance of Emerging Technologies Development combines multiple perspectives on ethical backgrounds, theories, and management approaches when implementing new technologies into an environment. Understanding the ethical implications associated with utilizing new advancements in technology is useful for professionals, researchers, and graduate students interested in this growing area of research.

International Political Economy in Context

Author: Andrew Sobel
Publisher: CQ Press
ISBN: 9781608717118
Release Date: 2012-08-28
Genre: Political Science

Although many international political economy texts offer good descriptions of what events have occurred in global economic and political relations, they make little attempt to develop explicit theoretical frameworks explaining why. Andrew SobelÆs International Political Economy in Context: Individual Choices, Global Effects takes a micro approach to international political economy that considers the fact that individualsùnot nationsùmake choices. Grounding policy choices in the competitive environs of domestic politics and decision-making processes, Sobel illustrates how policymakers choose among alternatives, settling on those that are most in sync with their self-interest. The book is structured to build studentsÆ skills for a sophisticated understanding of how and why events unfold in the international political economy. Students become versed in the primary assumptions and structural/macro conditions of economic and political geography in the global arena. An examination of micro-level conditions and mechanisms introduces the factors that influence political and economic outcomes. Students are then able to use those primary assumptions and micro-level arrangements to make sense of past and present changes in the global political economy. Those familiar with SobelÆs first volume, Political Economy and Global Affairs, will easily find their way through this new book. Anyone looking for a compelling, accessible, and fully integrated rational choice perspective on international political economy will find it here.

Reasoning rationality and probability

Author: Maria Carla Galavotti
Publisher: Center for the Study of Language and Inf
ISBN: 1575865572
Release Date: 2008-02-15
Genre: Philosophy

This volume broadens our concept of reasoning and rationality to allow for a more pluralistic and situational view of human thinking as a practical activity. Drawing on contributors across disciplines including philosophy, economics, psychology, statistics, computer science, engineering, and physics, Reasoning, Rationality, and Probability argues that the search for strong theories should leave room for the construction of context-sensitive conceptual tools. Both science and everyday life, the authors argue, are too complex and multifaceted to be forced into ready-made schemata.

Essays on the Context Nature and Influence of Isaac Newton s Theology

Author: J.E. Force
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400919440
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Philosophy

This collection of essays is the fruit of about fifteen years of discussion and research by James Force and me. As I look back on it, our interest and concern with Newton's theological ideas began in 1975 at Washington University in St. Louis. James Force was a graduate student in philosophy and I was a professor there. For a few years before, I had been doing research and writing on Millenarianism and Messianism in the 17th and 18th centuries, touching occasionally on Newton. I had bought a copy of Newton's Observations upon the Prophecies of Daniel, and the Apocalypse of St. John for a few pounds and, occasionally, read in it. In the Spring of 1975 I was giving a graduate seminar on Millenarian and Messianic ideas in the development of modem philosophy. Force was in the seminar. One day he came very excitedly up to me and said he wanted to write his dissertation on William Whiston. At that point in history, the only thing that came to my mind about Whiston was that he had published a, or the, standard translation of Josephus (which I also happened to have in my library. ) Force told me about the amazing views he had found in Whiston's notes on Josephus and in some of the few writings he could find in St. Louis by, or about, Whiston, who was Newton's successor as Lucasian Professor of mathematics at Cambridge and who wrote inordinately on Millenarian theology.

The Intentional Spectrum and Intersubjectivity

Author: Michael D. Barber
Publisher: Ohio University Press
ISBN: 9780821419618
Release Date: 2011-06-15
Genre: Philosophy

World-renowned analytic philosophers John McDowell and Robert Brandom, dubbed “Pittsburgh Neo-Hegelians,” recently engaged in an intriguing debate about perception. In The Intentional Spectrum and Intersubjectivity Michael D. Barber is the first to bring phenomenology to bear not just on the perspectives of McDowell or Brandom alone, but on their intersection. He argues that McDowell accounts better for the intelligibility of empirical content by defending holistically functioning, reflectively distinguishable sensory and intellectual intentional structures. He reconstructs dimensions implicit in the perception debate, favoring Brandom on knowledge’s intersubjective features that converge with the ethical characteristics of intersubjectivity Emmanuel Levinas illuminates. Phenomenology becomes the third partner in this debate between two analytic philosophers, critically mediating their discussion by unfolding the systematic interconnection among perception, intersubjectivity, metaphilosophy, and ethics.

Metaphor and Analogy in the Sciences

Author: F. Hallyn
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789401594424
Release Date: 2013-03-14
Genre: Philosophy

This collection of papers contains historical case studies, systematic contributions of a general nature, and applications to specific sciences. The bibliographies of the contributions contain references to all central items from the traditions that are relevant today. While providing access to contemporary views on the issue, the papers illustrate the wide variety of functions of metaphors and analogies, as well as the many connections between the study of some of these functions and other subjects and disciplines.

Caregiving Contexts

Author: Maximiliane E. Szinovacz, PhD
Publisher: Springer Publishing Company
ISBN: 0826103103
Release Date: 2007-08-13
Genre: Social Science

"This volume represents a major step forward in the literature by placing its focus squarely on the caregiving context, its dimensions and how it shapes the process and outcomes of family care. The chapters locate care within the family, rather than a single individual....The family, in turn, in embedded within a larger cultural, community, and social context....These explorations of context will give us a broader view of how caregiving occurs. It will help us improve our theories about care and about the family's role in contemporary society....Care of our elders is an enduring and yet evolving part of life. The focus on context will help us understand, support and learn from the ways that families meet the challenges involved."--from the foreword by Steve H. Zarit, PhD, Professor and Head, Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Pennsylvania State University Here, in Caregiving Contexts, the editors and their chapter authors explore the ways in which demographic change will influence the availability of caregivers and how divergent welfare and ideological systems will affect care among family members and between family and formal care systems. They also discuss the differences in experience between spousal and adult child caregivers, special circumstances such as child or adolescent caregivers, and government and workplace policies that are available to support caregivers in the United States and in some European countries. No other volume is available on caregiving which explores the sociocultural, familial, and sociopolitical contexts that effect both care decisions and outcomes.

Encyclopedia of the Mind

Author: Harold Pashler
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 9781412950572
Release Date: 2013-01-14
Genre: Psychology

It’s hard to conceive of a topic of more broad and personal interest than the study of the mind. In addition to its traditional investigation by the disciplines of psychology, psychiatry, and neuroscience, the mind has also been a focus of study in the fields of philosophy, economics, anthropology, linguistics, computer science, molecular biology, education, and literature. In all these approaches, there is an almost universal fascination with how the mind works and how it affects our lives and our behavior. Studies of the mind and brain have crossed many exciting thresholds in recent years, and the study of mind now represents a thoroughly cross-disciplinary effort. Researchers from a wide range of disciplines seek answers to such questions as: What is mind? How does it operate? What is consciousness? This encyclopedia brings together scholars from the entire range of mind-related academic disciplines from across the arts and humanities, social sciences, life sciences, and computer science and engineering to explore the multidimensional nature of the human mind.