Pretreatment for Reverse Osmosis Desalination is a comprehensive reference on all existing and emerging seawater pretreatment technologies used for desalination. The book focuses on reverse osmosis membrane desalination, which at present is the most widely applied technology for the production of fresh drinking water from highly saline water sources (brackish water and seawater). Each chapter contains examples illustrating various pretreatment technologies and their practical implementation. Provides in-depth overview of the key theoretical concepts associated with desalination pre-treatment Gives insight into the latest trends in membrane separation technology Incorporates analytical methods and guidelines for monitoring pretreatment systems
This textbook covers the fundamentals of fouling and scaling in reverse osmosis systems. It includes theory and practice of pre-treatment, fouling and scaling in reverse osmosis applied for drinking and industrial water production. The impact of the water source – seawater, river water, brackish groundwater and (treated domestic) waste water – will be discussed in depth. The book presents the knowledge and experience gained at IHE Delft over the last 25 years during the implementation of the master programme in Water Supply Engineering and during the implementation of state-of-the-art research in understanding and solving operational problems in full scale desalination plants. It presents the expert knowledge of IHE Delft in the areas of pre-treatment for reverse osmosis systems, assessment of water quality with respect to fouling potential, development of methods for quality assessment, modified fouling index ultrafiltration at constant flux, transparent exopolymer particles, antiscalant dose optimization, biological growth potential), algal blooms, scaling control. The book will be used in the annual master programme at IHE Delft and it will be of interest for students, academics, engineers and managers in drinking water facilities all over the world.
Author: Nikolay Voutchkov
Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Technology & Engineering
An in-depth guide to reverse osmosis desalination This Water Environment Federation and WateReuse Association publication provides comprehensive information on the planning and engineering of brackish and seawater desalination projects for municipal water supplies. After a brief overview of widely used desalination technologies, Desalination Engineering focuses on reverse osmosis desalination. The book discusses basic principles, planning and environmental review of projects, design and selection of key desalination plant components, desalinated water posttreatment, and concentrate management. Guidelines on sizing and cost estimation of desalination plant facilities are also included in this practical resource. COVERAGE INCLUDES: Source water quality characterization Fundamentals of reverse osmosis desalination Planning considerations Environmental review and permitting Intakes for source water collection Intake pump stations Source water screening and conditioning Sand removal, sedimentation, and dissolved air flotation Pretreatment by granular media filtration Pretreatment by membrane filtration Comparison of granular media and membrane pretreatment Reverse osmosis separation Post-treatment of desalinated water Desalination plant discharge management Desalination project cost estimates
Reverse Osmosis is the dominant technology in water desalination. However, some critical issues remain open: improvement of water quality, enhancement of the recovery factor, reduction of the unit water cost, minimizing the brine disposal impact. This book aims to solve these problems with an innovative approach based on the integration of different membrane operations in pre-treatment and post-treatment stages. Membrane-Based Desalination: An Integrated Approach (acronym MEDINA) has been a three years project funded by the European Commission within the 6th Framework Program. The project team has developed a work programme aiming to improve the current design and operation practices of membrane systems used for water desalination, trying to solve or, at least, to decrease the critical issues of sea and brackish water desalination systems. In the book, the main results achieved in the nine Work Packages constituting the project will be described, and dismissed by the leaders of the various WPs. The following areas are explored in the book: -the development of advanced analytical methods for feed water characterization, appropriate fouling indicators and prediction tools, procedures and protocols at full-scale desalination facilities; -the identification of optimal seawater pre-treatment strategies by designing advanced hybrid membrane processes (submerged hollow fibre filtration/reaction, adsorption/ion exchange/ozonation) and comparison with conventional methods; -the optimisation of RO membrane module configuration, cleaning strategies, reduction of scaling potential by NF; -the development of strategies aiming to approach the concept of Zero Liquid Discharge (increasing the water recovery factor up to 950/0 by using Membrane Distillation - MD; bringing concentrates to solids by Membrane Crystallization or Wind Intensified Enhanced Evaporation) and to reduce the brine disposal environmental impact and cost; -increase the sustainability of desalination process by reducing energy consumption(evaluation of MD, demonstration of a new energy recovery device for SWRO installations)and use of renewable energy (wind and solar).
Author: Thomas M. Missimer
Release Date: 2015-04-07
Genre: Business & Economics
The book assembles the latest research on new design techniques in water supplies using desalinated seawater. The authors examine the diverse issues related to the intakes and outfalls of these facilities. They clarify how and why these key components of the facilities impact the cost of operation and subsequently the cost of water supplied to the consumers. The book consists of contributed articles from a number of experts in the field who presented their findings at the "Desalination Intakes and Outfalls" workshop held at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) in Saudi Arabia in October, 2013. The book integrates coverage relevant to a wide variety of researchers and professionals in the general fields of environmental engineering and sustainable development.
This study investigates the role of coagulation in enhancing hydraulic performance and permeate quality of UF membranes and provides insight into options for minimizing or ideally eliminating coagulation from UF pre-treatment to SWRO. Results show that coagulation improves UF hydraulic performance mainly by reducing non-backwashable fouling of the membranes. This can be achieved at very low coagulant dose (~ 0.5 mg Fe/L) by coating the membranes with sub-micron particles. Additionally, the work highlights the applicability of UF membranes with low molecular weight cut-off as the coagulant free future of SWRO pre-treatment. Major benefits in terms of reduced environmental impact is expected when applying membranes with low molecular weight cut-off, as the need for coagulation is eliminated while ensuring longevity of downstream SWRO membranes. In general terms, the research indicates that coagulant consumption can be significantly reduced in UF pre-treatment of SWRO by optimizing operational parameters and applying alternative solutions.
Reverse Osmosis starts with an overview of the historic development of the RO membrane, the RO process, and its effect on other membrane separation processes. Other chapters cover the development of nanocomposites of TFC membranes and modern membrane characterization techniques, such as TEM, AFM and PALS, the RO membrane transport model, and RO membrane fouling. The book also describes, in detail, experimental methods for setting up RO experiments, RO membrane modules, RO membrane systems, and desalination and water treatment by RO. Applications in food, pharmaceutical, chemical, biochemical, petroleum and petrochemical industries are also summarized. Other sections cover the development of RO membranes with high thermal and chemical stability, attempts to develop polymeric or inorganic membranes, and hybrid processes where RO is combined with forward osmosis (FO) or membrane distillation (MD). Written by renowned experts in the field who have complementary expertise Provides an in-depth discussion of reverse osmosis transport based on nano-level membrane structure Comprehensively reviews recent progresses in novel reverse osmosis membrane development
Author: Nikolay Voutchkov
Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional
Release Date: 2014-04-05
Genre: Technology & Engineering
THE DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESALINATION PLANT OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE This Water Environment Federation and WateReuse Association publication describes state-of-the art operation, maintenance, and troubleshooting methods for reverse osmosis brackish and seawater desalination plants for municipal water supplies. All plant components are discussed in detail, from intake and pretreatment to discharge management. Best practices for maintaining plant equipment are also provided. Real-world examples illustrating the latest technologies and their practical implementation are included throughout this authoritative resource. Desalination Engineering covers: Source water open and subsurface intakes Source water pretreatment -- chemical conditioning, dissolved air flotation clarifiers, and granular media, membrane, and cartridge filters Reverse osmosis system operation Reverse osmosis system troubleshooting Post-treatment -- lime and carbon dioxide, calcite conditioning, remineralization, and disinfection Desalination plant discharge management Equipment maintenance -- pumps, air blowers, motors, bearings, valves, mechanical seals, mechanical drives, chemical feed systems, automatic samplers
This work presents critical overview of key processes, technologies and equipment used for seawater pretreatment, and discusses their areas of application, past track record, advantages and disadvantages. The work describes the typical causes and mechanisms of reverse osmosis membrane fouling and presents most recent developments in pretreatment technology and science.
Reverse Osmosis Treatment of Drinking Water discusses the use of reverse osmosis in the treatment of drinking water, as well as the applications of reverse osmosis on industrial and municipal wastewater. The book covers topics such as the general principles of reverse osmosis; the removal of inorganic wastes, organic wastes, and microorganisms by reverse osmosis; the membranes of the reverse osmosis system, and its cleaning and maintenance. The book also includes topics such as the pretreatment for reverse osmosis installations; the approval criteria of regulatory agencies for reverse osmosis installations; and future possible developments in the use of reverse osmosis treatment. The text is recommended for those in water treatments who would like to know more about the processes involved in reverse osmosis treatment.
Fundamental Modelling of Membrane Systems: Membrane and Process Performance summarizes the state-of-the-art modeling approaches for all significant membrane processes, from molecular transport, to process level, helping researchers and students who carry out experimental research save time and accurately interpret experimental data. The book provides an overview of the different membrane technologies, handling micro-, ultra-, and nanofiltration, reverse and forward osmosis, pervaporation, gas permeation, supported liquid membranes, membrane contactors, membrane bioreactors and ion-exchange membrane systems. Examples of hybrid membrane systems are also included. Presents an accessible reference on how to model membranes and membrane processes Provides a clear, mathematical description of mass transfer in membrane systems Written by well-known, prominent authors in the field of membrane science
Advanced Engineering and Technology contains 110 technical papers from the 2014 Annual Congress on Advanced Engineering and Technology (CAET 2014, Hong Kong, 19-20 April 2014, including the 4th Workshop on Applied Mechanics and Civil Engineering, AMCE 2014). The contributions focus on advanced theories and technologies related to building engineering, geotechnical engineering, road and bridge engineering, hydraulic engineering, environmental engineering, pollution and control, water resources and water treatment, mechanics in engineering, water and soil conservation, numerical software and applications, climate change and environmental dynamics, intelligent safety systems, chemistry, biochemical and food engineering, and modelling and data analysis. Advanced Engineering and Technology will be useful to academics and professionals involved in civil engineering, hydraulic engineering, environmental engineering, modelling & data analysis, chemistry and biochemical engineering, and other related fields.
One of the challenges the seawater desalination industry faces today is reverse osmosis (RO) membrane biofouling. Currently, Seawater pretreatment methods such as oxidant-based disinfection, ultraviolet irradiation, and coagulation followed by granular media or membrane filtration could reduce the number of bacteria in feed seawater, but would typically not eliminate biofilm formation on the RO membranes. Traditional water quality parameters recommended by the membrane manufacturers are often inadequate at protecting the membrane from biofouling. This research investigated alternative seawater desalination RO membrane biofouling indicators in a Southern California desalination plant. Environmental and water quality parameters were collected onsite over two years and were analyzed statistically. The results of this study indicated that biofouling was significantly correlated with changes of water quality parameters including TOC, UV254, chlorophyll fluorescence in raw seawater, and suggest that they can be used to predict the membrane biofouling events. In an effort to mitigate SWRO membrane biofouling, different concepts of alternative pretreatment strategies are explored and evaluated. The concept of balancing the carbon, nitrogen and phosphate concentration in RO feed water was explored and showed to reduce biofilm formation during the period of high fouling potential. In-situ assessment of biofouling potential of subsurface intake seawater also demonstrated the feasibility of the intake design to reduce membrane biofouling.