Plants in the Deserts of the Middle East

Author: Kamal H. Batanouny
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783662044803
Release Date: 2013-11-11
Genre: Science

Usually authors write introductions for their books, although they know that not many readers will read it. Despite this, authors insist on writing an introduction and no publisher will publish a book without one. I would like to inform my dear readers that I have spent almost all of the first quarter of my life in a village in the Nile Delta, 65 km north of Cairo. The everyday scenery there was the beautiful green landscape dissected with canals full of running water. All of these were bordered with the huge sycamore, mulberry and acacia trees. The desert was something unknown to me at that time, except for the very basic information given in geography books, which explained that the desert is a place without water or cultiva tion. Some of my ideas about the desert came to me from the stories in the history of Islam and the desert lands where Islam originated. My real attraction to the desert developed in the last year of my under graduate studies. This was during the field courses in Ecology (Prof. A.M.

Structure Function Relations of Warm Desert Plants

Author: Arthur C. Gibson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642609794
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Science

For centuries biologists have been extremely interested in the structure of desert plants as examples of natural selection to harsh environmental conditions. Indeed, desert plants are frequently used as examples in many biology classes and textbooks to illustrate natural selection, but this has led to an unfortunate litany of errors and misconceptions about desert plant adaptations. This new synthesis focuses on plants of lowland tropical and subtropical arid deserts. Readers will be surprised to discover that many features commonly ascribed to desert plants are rareley observed in the most common species. Instead, the typical structural adaptations of nonsucculent warm desert plants are now viewed as ways to maximize photosynthetic rate.

The Biology of Deserts

Author: David Ward
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780191047312
Release Date: 2016-06-16
Genre: Science

This book offers a concise but comprehensive introduction to desert ecology and adopts a strong evolutionary focus. As with other titles in the Biology of Habitats Series, the emphasis in the book is on the organisms that dominate this harsh environment, although theoretical and experimental aspects are also discussed. In this updated second edition, there is a greater focus on the effects of climate change and some of its likely effects on deserts, seeing desertification as among the most serious results of climate change, leading ultimately to the increasing size of arid and semi-arid regions. The Biology of Deserts Second Edition includes a wide range of ecological and evolutionary issues including morphological and physiological adaptations of desert plants and animals, species interactions, the importance of predation and parasitism, food webs, biodiversity, and conservation. It features a balance of plant and animal (both invertebrate and vertebrate) examples, and also emphasizes topical applied issues such as desertification and invasive species. The book concludes by considering the positive aspects of desert conservation. This accessible textbook is intended for senior undergraduate and graduate students, as well as professional ecologists, conservation practitioners, and resource managers working in the field of desert ecology.

Encyclopedia of Deserts

Author: Michael A. Mares
Publisher: University of Oklahoma Press
ISBN: 9780806172293
Release Date: 2017-01-19
Genre: Nature

Encyclopedia of Deserts represents a milestone: it is the first comprehensive reference to the first comprehensive reference to deserts and semideserts of the world. Approximately seven hundred entries treat subjects ranging from desert survival to the way deserts are formed. Topics include biology (birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, fishes, invertebrates, plants, bacteria, physiology, evolution), geography, climatology, geology, hydrology, anthropology, and history. The thirty-seven contributors, including volume editor Michael A. Mares, have had extensive careers in deserts research, encompassing all of the world’s arid and semiarid regions. The Encyclopedia opens with a subject list by topic, an organizational guide that helps the reader grasp interrelationships and complexities in desert systems. Each entry concludes with cross-references to other entries in the volume, inviting the reader to embark on a personal expedition into fascinating, previously unknown terrain. In addition a list of important readings facilitates in-depth study of each topic. An exhaustive index permits quick access to places, topics, and taxonomic listings of all plants and animals discussed. More than one hundred photographs, drawings, and maps enhance our appreciation of the remarkable life, landforms, history, and challenges of the world’s arid land.

Seed Germination in Desert Plants

Author: Yitzchak Gutterman
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642756986
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Science

During germination, the most resistant stage of the life cycle - the seed - changes to the most sensitive stage, namely the seedling. Therefore, in desert plant species seed dispersal and subsequent germination in the optimum time an place place are particularly critical parameters. Discussed here are the ways and means by which desert plants have adapted through the course of evolution to their extreme environment. Two such strategies which have evolved are a) plants with relatively large and protected seeds which germinate when the chance of seedling survival is high and the risk relatively low or b) those with an opportunistic strategy: minute seeds which germinate after low rainfall under high risk for seedling survival if additional rain does not follow. Most species adopt a combination of the two mechanisms. Species have adapted both genotypically and phenotypically, both aspects of which are also discussed in this thorough text. The reader is provided with a good understanding of the complex influences on each seed traced through from initial development to germination stage regarding germination preparation and subsequent survival.

Desert

Author: Roslynn D. Haynes
Publisher: Reaktion Books
ISBN: 9781780232089
Release Date: 2013-11-15
Genre: Nature

Sand. Cacti. Lizards. Mirages. Deserts call to mind exotic places, a sense of adventure and freedom, but also thirst and desolation. In Desert, Roslynn D. Haynes takes a fresh look at this geographical feature and cultural entity as it becomes an increasingly threatened environment. Considering the immense geographical diversity of deserts from the Sahara to Antarctica, Haynes explores the intriguing and often bizarre ways plants and animals adapt to such a hostile environment, as well as the diverse peoples that have inhabited deserts and evolved unique lifestyles and cultures in response to their surroundings. She asks why Judaism, Christianity, and Islam all originated in the deserts of the Middle East and traces the connections between the minimalism of desert existence and the pursuit of a spiritual dimension. Finally, she describes the allure deserts have exerted on the West, the significance of desolate landscapes in literature and film, and the revolution in artists’ responses to the desert as an empty space and as an inspiration for new visual techniques with which to view it. Ending with a look at how commercial and military interests threaten desert ecologies, Desert casts new light on our view of these seemingly barren places.

Plant Nutrients in Desert Environments

Author: Arden D. Day
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642776526
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Science

Plant nutrients are found in a relatively thin layer of soil materials that covers all of the continents of the entire world. These plant nutrients provide the necessary food, clothing, and shelter for human existence. As the population of the world increases, the plant nutrients in desert environments become more and more important for the survival of mankind. Plant Nutrients in Desert Environments is a general information book for both professionals and laymen. The common plant nutrients present in deserts are identified, and detailed instructions are given on how to effectively utilize them in commercial agriculture, home gardening, home landscaping, for disturbed land reclamation and for recreational purposes. Outstanding photographs illustrate the topics.

The Desert Biome

Author: Colin Grady
Publisher: Enslow Publishing, LLC
ISBN: 9780766077775
Release Date: 2016-07-15
Genre: Juvenile Nonfiction

A fennec fox peeks out of its burrow a camel plods across the hot sand a wren makes its nest in a cactus Welcome to the desert biome! Easy-to-follow text and color photos invite readers to learn about the different types of deserts, how various plants and animals survive in this harsh environment, and the dangers that desert growth presents to our earth today. A follow-up activity guides readers as they create their own desert scene and identify the elements of this fascinating biome.

Plant Ecology in the Middle East

Author: Ahmad Hegazy
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199660810
Release Date: 2016-01-14
Genre: Plant ecology

This advanced textbook explores the intriguing flora and plant ecology of the Middle East, framed by a changing desert landscape, global climate change, and the arc of human history. This vast region has been largely under-recognized, under-studied, and certainly under-published, due in part to the challenges posed to research by political disputes and human conflict, and a treatise on the subject is now timely. The book integrates Middle Eastern plant geography and its major drivers (geo-tectonics, seed and fruit dispersal, plant functional types, etc.) with the principles of plant ecology. The authors include the many specialized adaptations to desert and dryland ecosystems including succulence, water-conserving photosynthesis, and a remarkable range of other life history strategies. They explore the formation of 'climate relicts', and describe the long history of domestication in the region together with the many reciprocal effects of agriculture on plant ecology. The book concludes by discussing conservation in the region, highlighting five regional biodiversity hotspots where the challenges of desertification, habitat loss, and other threats to plant biodiversity are particularly acute. Plant Ecology in the Middle East is a timely synthesis of the field, setting a new baseline for future research. It will be important reading for both undergraduate and graduate students taking courses in plant ecology, evolution, systematics, biodiversity, and conservation, and will also be of interest and use to a professional audience of botanists, conservation biologists, and practitioners working in dryland ecosystems.

Ecology of Desert Systems

Author: Walter G. Whitford
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 008050499X
Release Date: 2002-03-25
Genre: Science

Conventional wisdom considers deserts stark, harsh regions that support few living things. Most people also believe that water alone makes the desert bloom. Ecology of Desert Systems challenges these conventional views. This volume explores a broad range of topics of interest to ecosystem, population, community, and physiological ecologists. Climate, weather patterns, geomorphology, and wind and water processes are examined as variables that affect the distribution of biota through fundamental ecosystem processes. Descriptions of morphological, behavioral, and physiological adaptations of desert biota illuminate, through the lens of patch dynamics, principles for understanding observed patterns of primary production, nutrient cycling, and the effects of consumers. Desertification, and the techniques for monitoring and quantifying it, is examined within the framework of desert ecosystem patterns and processes. * Focuses on the interactions of climate, soil, and biota along a spectrum of spatial and temporal scales * Details the role of animals in desert ecosystems and landscape processes * Examines watershed scale processes, the ecology of ephemeral lakes, and the ecological changes identified with desertification * Outlines the fundamental concepts relevant to sustainable development of arid lands

Desert Plants

Author: Kishan Gopal Ramawat
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642025501
Release Date: 2009-12-16
Genre: Science

Deserts appear very fascinating during our short visits. However, the lives of plants and animals are very dif?cult under the harsh climatic conditions of high tempe- ture and scant water supply in deserts, sometimes associated with high concent- tions of salt. The editor of this book was born and brought up in the Great Indian Desert, and has spent much of his life studying the growth and metabolism of desert plants. It is very charming on a cool summer evening to sit at the top of a sand dune listening only to blowing air and nothing else. It has been my dream to prepare a volume on desert plants encompassing various aspects of desert plant biology. In this book, I have tried to present functional and useful aspects of the vegetation resources of deserts along with scienti?c input aimed at understanding and impr- ing the utility of these plants. The scant vegetation of deserts supports animal life and provides many useful medicines, timber and fuel wood for humans. Therefore, there are chapters devoted to medicinal plants (Chap. 1), halophytes (Chaps. 13, 14), and fruit plants (Chaps. 17, 20). Desert plants have a unique reproductive biology (Chaps. 9–11), well-adapted eco-physiological and anatomical charact- istics (Chap. 7), and specialised metabolism and survival abilities. These plants are dif?cult to propagate and pose many problems to researchers developing biote- nological approaches for their amelioration (Chaps. 18–20).

Encyclopedia of Environmental Science

Author: John F. Mongillo
Publisher: University Rochester Press
ISBN: 1573561479
Release Date: 2000
Genre: Nature

Provides information related to environmental science; defines terms and identifies key people, organizations, events, statutes, treaties, places, creatures, and technology; and includes a chronology from 1798 to 2000.

Physiological Ecology of North American Desert Plants

Author: Stanley D. Smith
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642592126
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Science

Following a description of the physical and biological characterization of the four North American deserts together with the primary adaptations of plants to environmental stress, the authors go on to present case studies of key species. They provide an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the major patterns of adaptation in desert plants, with one chapter devoted to several important exotic plants that have invaded these deserts. The whole is rounded off with a synthesis of the resource requirements of desert plants and how they may respond to global climate change.

Plant Responses to Hyperarid Desert Environments

Author: Monier M. Abd El-Ghani
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319591353
Release Date: 2017-11-10
Genre: Science

This book provides a comprehensive discussion on plant responses in hyperarid regions of Egypt, China, Mexico, and Pakistan. It describes their location, physiographic features, accidental vegetation along two transects, endangered vegetation species, human impact, and variety of plant types (e.g. climbing, succulent, and parasitic). Studies on biotic and abiotic interactions, plant biodiversity, and soil-plant relationships are also covered. Covering a wide range of plant conditions and adaptations, this book analyzes what happens when plants must endure very high temperatures and aridity. Plants have adapted by evolving their physical structure to store and conserve water. Examples are the absence of leaves which reduces transpiration and the growth of extremely long roots, allowing them to acquire moisture at, or near the water table. Plants in hyperarid habitats have also made behavioral adaptations in order to survive by synchronizing with the seasons of greatest moisture and/or coolest temperatures. For example, desert perennials remain dormant during dry periods of the year, then spring to life when water becomes available. The book includes many color illustrations, and has extensive and up-to-date references for further reading.