At the time of its original publication this book was the first major survey of the nature of the difficulties that children with special educational needs experience in the classroom context of mainstream junior schools. The book is based on research involving interviews with heads and teachers, and on extensive observation of children in junior classrooms. The research is related to the report of the Warnock Committee and to problems of definition and assessment in the area of special education. The book describes the views which junior school teachers have of special educational needs and the numbers of children and types of difficulty they regard as falling into this category. It discusses the classroom behaviour and interactions of children with special needs, and some of the consequences of different teaching strategies. It also presents information on patterns of provision for special needs, assessment in the junior classroom and the teachers’ own views on integration.
At the time of its original publication this book was the first major survey of the nature of the difficulties that children with special educational needs experience in the classroom context of mainstream junior schools. The book is based on research involving interviews with heads and teachers, and on extensive observation of children in junior classrooms. The research is related to the report of the Warnock Committee and to problems of definition and assessment in the area of special education. The book describes the views which junior school teachers have of special educational needs and the numbers of children and types of difficulty they regard as falling into this category. It discusses the classroom behaviour and interactions of children with special needs, and some of the consequences of different teaching strategies. It also presents information on patterns of provision for special needs, assessment in the junior classroom and the teachers' own views on integration.
At the time of original publication, special education in Britain was permeated by an ideology of benevolent humanitarianism and this is ostensibly the moral framework within which the professionals – teachers, educational psychologists, medical officers – operate. The author widens the debate about special education by introducing sociological perspectives and considering the structural relationships that are produced both within the system and in the wider society when part of a mass education system develops separately, as ‘special’ rather than normal. She outlines the origin and development of special education, stressing the conflicts involved and the role played by vested interests, and criticizes the current rhetoric of ‘special needs’. Among the issues and dilemmas that she identifies, the problems of selection, assessment, integration and the curriculum for special schools are discussed in details, and the position of parents, pupils and teachers within the system is examined. The author gives particular attention in a separate chapter to the problems and position of ethnic minorities.
Whilst most teachers are skilled in providing opportunities for the progression of children’s learning, it is often without fully understanding the theory behind it. With greater insight into what is currently known about the processes of learning and about individual learning preferences, teachers are better equipped to provide effective experiences and situations which are more likely to lead to lasting attainment. Now fully updated, Ways of Learning seeks to provide an understanding of the ways in which learning takes place, which teachers can make use of in their planning and teaching, including: An overview of learning Behaviourism and the beginning of theory Cognitive and constructivist learning Multiple intelligences Learning styles Difficulties with learning The influence of neuro-psychology Relating theory to practice The third edition of this book includes developments in areas covered in the first and second editions, as well as expanding on certain topics to bring about a wider perspective; most noticeably a newly updated and fully expanded chapter on the influence of neuro-educational research. The book also reflects changes in government policy and is closely related to new developments in practice. Written for trainee teachers, serving teachers, and others interested in learning for various reasons, Ways of Learning serves as a valuable introduction for students setting out on higher degree work who are in need of an introduction to the topic.
Are you overwhelmed by the amount of paperwork that SEN generates in your school? Would you like to spend more time actually improving the quality of teaching and learning for pupils with SEN or disabilities? If so, this is an essential book for you. Government are asking schools to identify fewer children with SEN and place less reliance on Individual Education Plans - but at the same time ensure that children get the help they need. This and the new Ofsted framework challenge schools to find new ways of enabling all children to make progress – those with ‘true’ SEN, and those who may just be lower-achieving or needing help with behaviour problems. Fully revised and updated, the new edition of this best-selling, practical text contains helpful and achievable strategies to meet these policy challenges. It will provide support for school leaders, SENCOs and anyone undertaking the national SENCO award. Through school case studies, Beating Bureaucracy in Special Educational Needs shows how to increase pupil progress by using existing systems for class and subject teacher target-setting, tracking and planning. It lists the intervention programmes that really work and describes successful partnership with parents. A toolkit of ready-to-use pro-formas, also available online, includes: a model policy to give to Ofsted curriculum planning formats and provision maps strategy sheets for all the main types of SEN proformas to help you plan, monitor and evaluate your provision. The book shows how to put responsibility for supporting children with most types of additional need firmly back where it belongs – with class and subject teachers. It will help you – in the words of one SENCO – ‘get your life back’.
Author: George A Brown
Release Date: 2013-10-14
There is no doubt about the importance of assessment: it defines what students regard as important, how they spend their time and how they come to see themselves - it is a necessary part of helping them to learn. This text provides background research on different aspects of assessment. Its purpose is to help lecturers to refresh their approach to the assessment of student learning. It explores the nature of conventional assessment such as essays and projects, and also considers less widely used approaches such as self- and peer-assessment. There are also chapters devoted to the use of IT, the role of external examiners and the introduction of different forms of assessment. With guidelines, suggestions, examples of practice and activities, this book will become a springboard for action, discussion and even more active learning.
Across OECD countries, almost one in every five students does not reach a basic minimum level of skills. This book presents a series of policy recommendations for education systems to help all children succeed.
Children and young people with Complex Learning Difficulties and Disabilities (CLDD) have co-existing and overlapping conditions which can manifest in complex learning patterns, extreme behaviours and a range of socio-medical needs which are new and unfamiliar to many educators. Their combination of issues and layered needs – mental health, relationship, behavioural, physical, medical, sensory, communication and cognitive – mean they often disengage from learning and challenge even our most experienced teachers. This book provides school practitioners and leaders with an approach and resources to engage this often disenfranchized group of children in learning. The Engagement for Learning Framework has been developed and trialled by over 100 educational settings (both special and mainstream) with learners from early years to post-16. It gives practitioners from a range of disciplines a shared means of assessing, recording and developing personalized learning pathways and demonstrating progression for these children. The focus on inquiry means that however complex a young person’s needs, educators will be able to apply the approach. This practical and engaging book provides literature, tools and case study examples outlining who children and young people with CLDD are, why their engagement for learning is important and how the Engagement for Learning Framework can be used effectively by teachers and other professionals to ensure the best possible outcomes for these children.
Over the last decade, teaching assistants (TAs) have become an established part of everyday classroom life. TAs are often used by schools to help low-attaining pupils and those with special educational needs. Yet despite the huge rise in the number of TAs working in UK classrooms, very little is known about their impact on pupils. This key and timely text examines the impact of TAs on pupils’ learning and behaviour, and on teachers and teaching. The authors present the provocative findings from the ground-breaking and seminal Deployment and Impact of Support Staff (DISS) project. This was the largest, most in-depth study ever to be carried out in this field. It critically examined the effect of TA support on the academic progress of 8,200 pupils, made extensive observations of nearly 700 pupils and over 100 TAs, and collected data from over 17,800 questionnaire responses and interviews with over 470 school staff and pupils. This book reveals the extent to which the pupils in most need are let down by current classroom practice. The authors present a robust challenge to the current widespread practices concerning TA preparation, deployment and practice, structured around a conceptually and empirically strong explanatory framework. The authors go on to show how schools need to change if they are to realise the potential of TAs. With serious implications not just for classroom practice, but also whole-school, local authority and government policy, this will be an indispensable text for primary, secondary and special schools, senior management teams, those involved in teacher training and professional development, policy-makers and academics.
This unique and ground-breaking book is the result of 15 years research and synthesises over 800 meta-analyses on the influences on achievement in school-aged students. It builds a story about the power of teachers, feedback, and a model of learning and understanding. The research involves many millions of students and represents the largest ever evidence based research into what actually works in schools to improve learning. Areas covered include the influence of the student, home, school, curricula, teacher, and teaching strategies. A model of teaching and learning is developed based on the notion of visible teaching and visible learning. A major message is that what works best for students is similar to what works best for teachers – an attention to setting challenging learning intentions, being clear about what success means, and an attention to learning strategies for developing conceptual understanding about what teachers and students know and understand. Although the current evidence based fad has turned into a debate about test scores, this book is about using evidence to build and defend a model of teaching and learning. A major contribution is a fascinating benchmark/dashboard for comparing many innovations in teaching and schools.
School psychology practice does not exist in a vacuum and is not value-neutral. As the role and function of the school psychologist continues to evolve and expand, social justice provides a needed real-world framework for school psychology students, practitioners, supervisors, and professors to guide their efforts. Culled from years of experience by experts working in a vast array of applied environments and appropriate both for practitioners and for graduate courses in multicultural school psychology and/or the role and function of school psychologists, this book takes the reader through a tour of common school psychology topics and functions through the lens of social justice. Utilizing case examples and concrete suggestions, a critical yet hopeful vision of ways in which school psychologists can work to achieve positive outcomes for students, families, schools, and society is provided.
This sixth edition of the best-selling SENCo Handbook has been extensively updated to take account of the SEND Code of Practice (2014), recent research, and implications for policy and practice in schools and for SENCos. It provides vital information, practical approaches to the SENCo role and responsibilities, and perceptive analysis of issues, relevant to all schools, early years settings and colleges. Debating and discussing how the SENCo role has changed and will change, this book will help all SENCos, headteachers and school leaders to create and implement effective whole-school policy and practice for special educational needs. Key topics include: leading and managing change in SEN policy and practice building the capacity of class and subject teachers to meet the needs of pupils managing the graduated response for those with identified additional needs tracking and recording progress developing whole-school approaches to policy and practice for those with SEND the deployment and management of support staff working with children, young people and their parents working in partnership with a range of outside agencies and services Photocopiable training materials are included, as well as source lists for further reading and information. The SENCo Handbook is essential reading for those studying for the National Award for SEN Co-ordination, whilst more experienced SENCos will value its academic underpinning and common-sense on issues that matter.
This is an up-to-the-moment, engaging, multicultural introduction to education and teaching and the challenges and opportunities they present. Together, the four authors bring a rich blend of theory and practical application to this groundbreaking text. Jeannie Oakes is a leading education researcher and former director of the UCLA teacher education program. Martin Lipton is an education writer and consultant and has taught in public schools for 31 years. Lauren Anderson and Jamy Stillman are former public school teachers, now working as teacher educators. This unique, comprehensive foundational text considers the values and politics that pervade the U.S. education system, explains the roots of conventional thinking about schooling and teaching, asks critical questions about how issues of power and privilege have shaped and continue to shape educational opportunity, and presents powerful examples of real teachers working for equity and justice. Taking the position that a hopeful, democratic future depends on ensuring that all students learn, the text pays particular attention to inequalities associated with race, social class, language, gender, and other social categories and explores teachers role in addressing them. The text provides a research-based and practical treatment of essential topics, and it situates those topics in relation to democratic values; issues of diversity; and cognitive, sociocultural, and constructivist perspectives on learning. The text shows how knowledge of education foundations and history can help teachers understand the organization of today s schools, the content of contemporary curriculum, and the methods of modern teaching. It likewise shows how teachers can use such knowledge when thinking about and responding to headline issues like charter schools, vouchers, standards, testing, and bilingual education, to name just a few. Central to this text is a belief that schools can and must be places of extraordinary educational quality and institutions in the service of social justice. Thus, the authors address head-on tensions between principles of democratic schooling and competition for always-scarce high-quality opportunities. Woven through the text are the voices of a diverse group of teachers, who share their analyses and personal anecdotes concerning what teaching to change the world means and involves. Click Here for Book Website Pedagogical Features: Digging Deeper sections referenced at the end of each chapter and featured online include supplementary readings and resources from scholars and practitioners who are addressing issues raised in the text. Instructor s Manual offers insights about how to teach course content in ways that are consistent with cognitive and sociocultural learning theories, culturally diverse pedagogy, and authentic assessment.New to this Edition: "