On Integrating Unmanned Aircraft Systems into the National Airspace System

Author: Konstantinos Dalamagkidis
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400724792
Release Date: 2011-10-05
Genre: Technology & Engineering

This book presents, in a comprehensive way, current unmanned aviation regulation, airworthiness certification, special aircraft categories, pilot certification, federal aviation requirements, operation rules, airspace classes and regulation development models. It discusses unmanned aircraft systems levels of safety derived mathematically based on the corresponding levels for manned aviation. It provides an overview of the history and current status of UAS airworthiness and operational regulation worldwide. Existing regulations have been developed considering the need for a complete regulatory framework for UAS. It focuses on UAS safety assessment and functional requirements, achieved in terms of defining an “Equivalent Level of Safety”, or ELOS, with that of manned aviation, specifying what the ELOS requirement entails for UAS regulations. To accomplish this, the safety performance of manned aviation is first evaluated, followed by a novel model to derive reliability requirements for achieving target levels of safety (TLS) for ground impact and mid-air collision accidents.It discusses elements of a viable roadmap leading to UAS integration in to the NAS. For this second edition of the book almost all chapters include major updates and corrections. There is also a new appendix chapter.

Unmanned Aircraft Design

Author: Mohammad Sadraey
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
ISBN: 9781681731698
Release Date: 2017-09-19
Genre: Technology & Engineering

This book provides fundamental principles, design procedures, and design tools for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) with three sections focusing on vehicle design, autopilot design, and ground system design. The design of manned aircraft and the design of UAVs have some similarities and some differences. They include the design process, constraints (e.g., g-load, pressurization), and UAV main components (autopilot, ground station, communication, sensors, and payload). A UAV designer must be aware of the latest UAV developments; current technologies; know lessons learned from past failures; and they should appreciate the breadth of UAV design options. The contribution of unmanned aircraft continues to expand every day and over 20 countries are developing and employing UAVs for both military and scientific purposes. A UAV system is much more than a reusable air vehicle or vehicles. UAVs are air vehicles, they fly like airplanes and operate in an airplane environment. They are designed like air vehicles; they have to meet flight critical air vehicle requirements. A designer needs to know how to integrate complex, multi-disciplinary systems, and to understand the environment, the requirements and the design challenges and this book is an excellent overview of the fundamentals from an engineering perspective. This book is meant to meet the needs of newcomers into the world of UAVs. The materials are intended to provide enough information in each area and illustrate how they all play together to support the design of a complete UAV. Therefore, this book can be used both as a reference for engineers entering the field or as a supplementary text for a UAV design course to provide system-level context for each specialized topic.

Human Automation Interaction Considerations for Unmanned Aerial System Integration into the National Airspace System

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309471459
Release Date: 2018-06-11
Genre: Business & Economics

Prior to 2012, unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) technology had been primarily used by the military and hobbyists, but it has more recently transitioned to broader application, including commercial and scientific applications, as well as to expanded military use. These new uses encroach on existing structures for managing the nation’s airspace and present significant challenges to ensure that UASs are coordinated safely and suitably with existing manned aircraft and air traffic management systems, particularly with the National Airspace System (NAS). Of particular concern is the interaction between human pilots, operators, or controllers and increasingly automated systems. Enhanced understanding of these interactions is essential to avoid unintended consequences, especially as new technologies emerge. In order to explore these issues, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine organized a 2-day workshop in January 2018. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

Introduction to Unmanned Aircraft Systems

Author: Douglas M. Marshall
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781439835210
Release Date: 2016-04-19
Genre: Computers

Introduction to Unmanned Aircraft Systems is the editors’ response to their unsuccessful search for suitable university-level textbooks on this subject. A collection of contributions from top experts, this book applies the depth of their expertise to identify and survey the fundamentals of unmanned aircraft system (UAS) operations. Written from a nonengineering civilian operational perspective, the book starts by detailing the history of UASs and then explores current technology and what is expected for the future. Covering all facets of UAS elements and operation—including an examination of safety procedures and human factors—this material gives readers a truly complete and practical understanding of what it takes to safely operate UASs for a variety of missions in the National Airspace System. Topics covered include: The U.S. aviation regulatory system Certificate of authorization process UAS for geospatial data Automation and autonomy in UAS Sensors and payloads With helpful end-of-chapter discussion questions, this resource is designed to give beginning university students and other new entrants to the field a comprehensive, easy-to-understand first overview of the field. The book’s broad scope also makes it useful as a foundation for professionals embarking on further study.

Unmanned Aircraft Systems

Author: Kimon P. Valavanis
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402091377
Release Date: 2008-12-21
Genre: Science

Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) have seen unprecedented levels of growth during the last decade in both military and civilian domains. It is anticipated that civilian applications will be dominant in the future, although there are still barriers to be overcome and technical challenges to be met. Integrating UAS into, for example, civilian space, navigation, autonomy, see-detect-and-avoid systems, smart designs, system integration, vision-based navigation and training, to name but a few areas, will be of prime importance in the near future. This special volume is the outcome of research presented at the International Symposium on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, held in Orlando, Florida, USA, from June 23-25, 2008, and presents state-of-the-art findings on topics such as: UAS operations and integration into the national airspace system; UAS navigation and control; micro-, mini-, small UAVs; UAS simulation testbeds and frameworks; UAS research platforms and applications; UAS applications. This book aims at serving as a guide tool on UAS for engineers and practitioners, academics, government agencies and industry. Previously published in the Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems, 54 (1-3, 2009).

Drones in Society

Author: Ron Bartsch
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781315409634
Release Date: 2016-12-08
Genre: Technology & Engineering

The integration of drones into society has attracted unprecedented attention throughout the world. The change, for aviation, has been described as being equally as big as the arrival of the jet engine. This book examines the issues that surround this change, for our society and the legal frameworks that preserve our way of life. Drones in Society takes the uninitiated on a journey to understand the history of drones, the present day and the potential future in order to demystify the media hype. Written in an accessible style, Drones in Society will appeal to a broad range of interested readerships, among them students, safety regulators, government employees, airspace regulators, insurance brokers and underwriters, risk managers, lawyers, privacy groups and the Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) industry generally. In a world first, this book is a light and interesting read; being both relatable and memorable while discussing complex matters of privacy, international law and the challenges ahead for us all.

Handbook of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Author: Kimon P. Valavanis
Publisher: Springer Verlag
ISBN: 9048197082
Release Date: 2014-01-31
Genre: Technology & Engineering

The main goal of this two-volume reference work is to be a comprehensive resource for the academic and research communities, industry, and governmental organizations that use Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in a wide spectrum of applications. The Handbook covers all aspects of UAVs, from design to users. It is an exhaustive reference to the literature for a wide spectrum of people and will be covering aspects such as science, engineering, development, design and modeling, applications, military and civilian use, 'who's who', 'who's doing what', manufacturers, etc. The handbook will be suitable for not only those who need 'just information' about UAVs but also to the scientists, engineers and practitioners who work in the area of UAVs. The handbook also targets academics and graduate students who conduct research in the area and industry, manufacturers and users in the UAV area.

Feedback Systems

Author: Karl Johan Aström
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400828732
Release Date: 2010-04-12
Genre: Mathematics

This book provides an introduction to the mathematics needed to model, analyze, and design feedback systems. It is an ideal textbook for undergraduate and graduate students, and is indispensable for researchers seeking a self-contained reference on control theory. Unlike most books on the subject, Feedback Systems develops transfer functions through the exponential response of a system, and is accessible across a range of disciplines that utilize feedback in physical, biological, information, and economic systems. Karl Åström and Richard Murray use techniques from physics, computer science, and operations research to introduce control-oriented modeling. They begin with state space tools for analysis and design, including stability of solutions, Lyapunov functions, reachability, state feedback observability, and estimators. The matrix exponential plays a central role in the analysis of linear control systems, allowing a concise development of many of the key concepts for this class of models. Åström and Murray then develop and explain tools in the frequency domain, including transfer functions, Nyquist analysis, PID control, frequency domain design, and robustness. They provide exercises at the end of every chapter, and an accompanying electronic solutions manual is available. Feedback Systems is a complete one-volume resource for students and researchers in mathematics, engineering, and the sciences. Covers the mathematics needed to model, analyze, and design feedback systems Serves as an introductory textbook for students and a self-contained resource for researchers Includes exercises at the end of every chapter Features an electronic solutions manual Offers techniques applicable across a range of disciplines

Sense and Avoid in UAS

Author: Plamen Angelov
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780470979754
Release Date: 2012-04-30
Genre: Technology & Engineering

"State-of-the-art in research in this challenging yet crucial and topical field, addressing the challenges associated with sense and avoid systems in UASs/ UAVs in their complexity and entirety. Sense and avoid systems are a key technology in the fastestgrowing field of aircraft development - unmanned aircraft systems. Sense and Avoid in UAS: Research and Applications addresses the challenges associated with sense and avoid systems in UASs/ UAVs in their complexity and entirety. Encompassing the state-of-the-art in research in this challenging yet crucial and topical field, it isauthored by leading practitioners and researchers from three different continents worldwide working on ¹multi-million research programmes such as ASTRAEA. Highly original, it fulfils the current gap in the published literature on sense and avoid covering views and analyses from sensing to guidance to human factors to regulatory issues. The authors assume some basic knowledge of aviation navigation and aerodynamics, but address principles rather than complex mathematics. Addresses the challenges associated with sense and avoid systems in UASs/ UAVs in their complexity and entirety Fulfils the current gap in published literature on sense and avoid Covers views and analyses from sensing to guidance to human factors to regulatory issues Authored by leading researchers as well as industry practitioners worldwide"--

Unmanned Aviation

Author: Laurence R. Newcome
Publisher: AIAA
ISBN: 1563476444
Release Date: 2004
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Newcome traces the family tree of unmanned aircraft all the way back to their roots as aerial torpedoes, which were the equivalent of todays cruise missiles. He discusses the work of leading aerospace pioneers whose efforts in the area of unmanned aviation have largely been ignored by history.

Domesticating Drones

Author: Henry H Perritt, Jr
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781317148357
Release Date: 2016-09-13
Genre: Technology & Engineering

The public debate over civilian use of drones is intensifying. Variously called "unmanned aircraft systems", "unmanned aerial vehicles", "remotely piloted aircraft", or simply "drones", they are available for purchase by anyone for a few hundred to a few thousand dollars. They have strikingly useful capabilities. They can carry high-definition video cameras, infrared imaging equipment, sensors for aerial surveying and mapping. They can stream their video in real time. They have GPS, inertial guidance, magnetic compasses, altimeters, and sonic ground sensors that permit them to fly a preprogrammed flightplan, take off and land autonomously, hover and orbit autonomously with the flick of a switch on the DRone Operator’s ("DROPs") console. The benefits they can confer on law enforcement, journalism, land-use planning, real estate sales, critical infrastructure protection and environmental preservation activities are obvious. However, their proliferation in response to these demands will present substantial risks to aviation safety. How to ensure the safety of drone operations perplexes aviation regulators around the world. They are inexpensive consumer products, unsuited for traditional requirements for manned aircraft costing hundreds of thousands or millions of dollars and flown only by licensed pilots who have dedicated significant parts of their lives and their wealth to obtaining licenses. Regulatory agencies in Europe and Asia are ahead of US regulators in creating spaces for commercial use. Over the next several years, legal requirements must be crystallized, existing operators of helicopter and airplanes must refine their policy positions and their business plans to take the new technologies into account, and all businesses from the smallest entrepreneur to large conglomerates must decide whether and how to use them. Domesticating Drones offers rigorous engineering, economics, legal and policy theory and doctrine on this important and far-reaching development within aviation.

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Author: Kimon P. Valavanis
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9401781745
Release Date: 2014-10-16
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) have seen unprecedented levels of growth during the last decade in both military and civilian domains. However, it is anticipated that civilian applications will be dominant in the future, although there are still barriers to be overcome and technical challenges to be met. For example, integrating UAS into civilian space, fully autonomous navigation, see-detect-and-avoid systems, smart UAS designs, system integration, vision-based navigation, logistics and training, to name but a few areas, will be of prime importance in the near future. This special volume is the outcome of research presented at the International Symposium on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, held in Dubai in June 2010, and presents state-of-the-art findings on topics related to: UAS operations and integration into the national airspace system; UAS navigation and control; micro-, mini-, small UAVs; UAS simulation testbeds and frameworks; UAS research platforms and applications; UAS applications. This book aims at serving as a guide tool on UAS for engineers and practitioners, academics, government agencies and industry. This is a hardbound spinoff from the Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems, Volume 61:1-4, 2011.

Springer Handbook of Automation

Author: Shimon Y. Nof
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540788317
Release Date: 2009-07-16
Genre: Technology & Engineering

This handbook incorporates new developments in automation. It also presents a widespread and well-structured conglomeration of new emerging application areas, such as medical systems and health, transportation, security and maintenance, service, construction and retail as well as production or logistics. The handbook is not only an ideal resource for automation experts but also for people new to this expanding field.

Planning Algorithms

Author: Steven M. LaValle
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139455176
Release Date: 2006-05-29
Genre: Computers

Planning algorithms are impacting technical disciplines and industries around the world, including robotics, computer-aided design, manufacturing, computer graphics, aerospace applications, drug design, and protein folding. This coherent and comprehensive book unifies material from several sources, including robotics, control theory, artificial intelligence, and algorithms. The treatment is centered on robot motion planning, but integrates material on planning in discrete spaces. A major part of the book is devoted to planning under uncertainty, including decision theory, Markov decision processes, and information spaces, which are the 'configuration spaces' of all sensor-based planning problems. The last part of the book delves into planning under differential constraints that arise when automating the motions of virtually any mechanical system. This text and reference is intended for students, engineers, and researchers in robotics, artificial intelligence, and control theory as well as computer graphics, algorithms, and computational biology.

Linear and Nonlinear Control of Small Scale Unmanned Helicopters

Author: Ioannis A. Raptis
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400700237
Release Date: 2010-09-28
Genre: Technology & Engineering

There has been significant interest for designing flight controllers for small-scale unmanned helicopters. Such helicopters preserve all the physical attributes of their full-scale counterparts, being at the same time more agile and dexterous. This book presents a comprehensive and well justified analysis for designing flight controllers for small-scale unmanned helicopters guarantying flight stability and tracking accuracy. The design of the flight controller is a critical and integral part for developing an autonomous helicopter platform. Helicopters are underactuated, highly nonlinear systems with significant dynamic coupling that needs to be considered and accounted for during controller design and implementation. Most reliable mathematical tools for analysis of control systems relate to modern control theory. Modern control techniques are model-based since the controller architecture depends on the dynamic representation of the system to be controlled. Therefore, the flight controller design problem is tightly connected with the helicopter modeling. This book provides a step-by-step methodology for designing, evaluating and implementing efficient flight controllers for small-scale helicopters. Design issues that are analytically covered include: • An illustrative presentation of both linear and nonlinear models of ordinary differential equations representing the helicopter dynamics. A detailed presentation of the helicopter equations of motion is given for the derivation of both model types. In addition, an insightful presentation of the main rotor's mechanism, aerodynamics and dynamics is also provided. Both model types are of low complexity, physically meaningful and capable of encapsulating the dynamic behavior of a large class of small-scale helicopters. • An illustrative and rigorous derivation of mathematical control algorithms based on both the linear and nonlinear representation of the helicopter dynamics. Flight controller designs guarantee that the tracking objectives of the helicopter's inertial position (or velocity) and heading are achieved. Each controller is carefully constructed by considering the small-scale helicopter's physical flight capabilities. Concepts of advanced stability analysis are used to improve the efficiency and reduce the complexity of the flight control system. Controller designs are derived in both continuous time and discrete time covering discretization issues, which emerge from the implementation of the control algorithm using microprocessors. • Presentation of the most powerful, practical and efficient methods for extracting the helicopter model parameters based on input/output responses, collected by the measurement instruments. This topic is of particular importance for real-life implementation of the control algorithms. This book is suitable for students and researches interested in the development and the mathematical derivation of flight controllers for small-scale helicopters. Background knowledge in modern control is required.