Number Words and Number Symbols

Author: Karl Menninger
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 9780486319773
Release Date: 2013-04-10
Genre: Mathematics

Classic study discusses number sequence and number language, then explores written numerals and computations in a wide range of cultures. 282 illustrations. "Superior narrative ability." — Library Journal.

Number Words and Number Symbols

Author: Karl Menninger
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 9780486270968
Release Date: 1969
Genre: Mathematics

Classic study discusses number sequence and language and explores written numerals and computations in many cultures. "The historian of mathematics will find much to interest him here both in the contents and viewpoint, while the casual reader is likely to be intrigued by the author's superior narrative ability." -Library Journal.282 illustrations. 1969 edition.

A History of Mathematical Notations

Author: Florian Cajori
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 9780486161167
Release Date: 2013-09-26
Genre: Mathematics

This classic study notes the first appearance of a mathematical symbol and its origin, the competition it encountered, its spread among writers in different countries, its rise to popularity, its eventual decline or ultimate survival. The author’s coverage of obsolete notations — and what we can learn from them — is as comprehensive as those which have survived and still enjoy favor. Originally published in 1929 in a two-volume edition, this monumental work is presented here in one volume.

The Universal History of Numbers

Author: Georges Ifrah
Publisher: Wiley
ISBN: 0471393401
Release Date: 2000-10-09
Genre: Mathematics

"Georges Ifrah is the man. This book, quite simply, rules. . . . It is outstanding . . . a mind-boggling and enriching experience." –The Guardian (London) "Monumental. . . . a fascinating journey taking us through many different cultures."–The Times (London)"Ifrah’s book amazes and fascinates by the scope of its scholarship. It is nothing less than the history of the human race told through figures." –International Herald Tribune Now in paperback, here is Georges Ifrah’s landmark international bestseller–the first complete, universal study of the invention and evolution of numbers the world over. A riveting history of counting and calculating, from the time of the cave dwellers to the twentieth century, this fascinating volume brings numbers to thrilling life, explaining their development in human terms, the intriguing situations that made them necessary, and the brilliant achievements in human thought that they made possible. It takes us through the numbers story from Europe to China, via ancient Greece and Rome, Mesopotamia, Latin America, India, and the Arabic countries. Exploring the many ways civilizations developed and changed their mathematical systems, Ifrah imparts a unique insight into the nature of human thought–and into how our understanding of numbers and the ways they shape our lives have changed and grown over thousands of years. "Dazzling."–Kirkus Reviews "Sure to transfix readers."–PublishersWeekly

A Brief History of Numbers

Author: Leo Corry
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 9780191007071
Release Date: 2015-08-27
Genre: Mathematics

The world around us is saturated with numbers. They are a fundamental pillar of our modern society, and accepted and used with hardly a second thought. But how did this state of affairs come to be? In this book, Leo Corry tells the story behind the idea of number from the early days of the Pythagoreans, up until the turn of the twentieth century. He presents an overview of how numbers were handled and conceived in classical Greek mathematics, in the mathematics of Islam, in European mathematics of the middle ages and the Renaissance, during the scientific revolution, all the way through to the mathematics of the 18th to the early 20th century. Focusing on both foundational debates and practical use numbers, and showing how the story of numbers is intimately linked to that of the idea of equation, this book provides a valuable insight to numbers for undergraduate students, teachers, engineers, professional mathematicians, and anyone with an interest in the history of mathematics.

Numbers and the Making of Us

Author: Caleb Everett
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674504431
Release Date: 2017-03-13
Genre: Language Arts & Disciplines

Number concepts are a human invention developed and refined over millennia. They allow us to grasp quantities precisely: recent research shows that most specific quantities are not perceived in the absence of a number system. Numbers are not innate or universal; yet without them, the world as we know it would not exist.

Africa Counts

Author: Claudia Zaslavsky
Publisher: Chicago Review Press
ISBN: 9781613741153
Release Date: 1999-04-01
Genre: Mathematics

This fascinating study of mathematical thinking among sub-Saharan African peoples covers counting in words and in gestures; measuring time, distance, weight, and other quantities; manipulating money and keeping accounts; number systems; patterns in music, poetry, art, and architecture; and number magic and taboos. African games such as mankala and elaborate versions of tic-tac-toe show how complex this thinking can be. An invaluable resource for students, teachers, and others interested in African cultures and multiculturalism, this third edition is updated with an introduction covering two decades of new research in the ethnomathematics of Africa.

Enlightening Symbols

Author: Joseph Mazur
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400850112
Release Date: 2014-03-23
Genre: Mathematics

While all of us regularly use basic math symbols such as those for plus, minus, and equals, few of us know that many of these symbols weren't available before the sixteenth century. What did mathematicians rely on for their work before then? And how did mathematical notations evolve into what we know today? In Enlightening Symbols, popular math writer Joseph Mazur explains the fascinating history behind the development of our mathematical notation system. He shows how symbols were used initially, how one symbol replaced another over time, and how written math was conveyed before and after symbols became widely adopted. Traversing mathematical history and the foundations of numerals in different cultures, Mazur looks at how historians have disagreed over the origins of the numerical system for the past two centuries. He follows the transfigurations of algebra from a rhetorical style to a symbolic one, demonstrating that most algebra before the sixteenth century was written in prose or in verse employing the written names of numerals. Mazur also investigates the subconscious and psychological effects that mathematical symbols have had on mathematical thought, moods, meaning, communication, and comprehension. He considers how these symbols influence us (through similarity, association, identity, resemblance, and repeated imagery), how they lead to new ideas by subconscious associations, how they make connections between experience and the unknown, and how they contribute to the communication of basic mathematics. From words to abbreviations to symbols, this book shows how math evolved to the familiar forms we use today.

Nice Numbers

Author: John Barnes
Publisher: Birkhäuser
ISBN: 9783319468310
Release Date: 2016-11-25
Genre: Mathematics

In this intriguing book, John Barnes takes us on a journey through aspects of numbers much as he took us on a geometrical journey in Gems of Geometry. Similarly originating from a series of lectures for adult students at Reading and Oxford University, this book touches a variety of amusing and fascinating topics regarding numbers and their uses both ancient and modern. The author informs and intrigues his audience with both fundamental number topics such as prime numbers and cryptography, and themes of daily needs and pleasures such as counting one's assets, keeping track of time, and enjoying music. Puzzles and exercises at the end of each lecture offer additional inspiration, and numerous illustrations accompany the reader. Furthermore, a number of appendices provides in-depth insights into diverse topics such as Pascal's triangle, the Rubik cube, Mersenne's curious keyboards, and many others. A theme running through is the thought of what is our favourite number. Written in an engaging and witty style and requiring only basic school mathematical knowledge, this book will appeal to both young and mature readers fascinated by the curiosities of numbers.

Number the Stars

Author: Lois Lowry
Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
ISBN: 0547345445
Release Date: 1989-04-24
Genre: Juvenile Fiction

As the German troops begin their campaign to "relocate" all the Jews of Denmark, Annemarie Johansen’s family takes in Annemarie’s best friend, Ellen Rosen, and conceals her as part of the family. Through the eyes of ten-year-old Annemarie, we watch as the Danish Resistance smuggles almost the entire Jewish population of Denmark, nearly seven thousand people, across the sea to Sweden. The heroism of an entire nation reminds us that there was pride and human decency in the world even during a time of terror and war. Winner of the 1990 Newbery Medal.

The Number Sense How the Mind Creates Mathematics

Author: Stanislas Dehaene
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199881055
Release Date: 1999-10-30
Genre: Mathematics

The Number Sense is an enlightening exploration of the mathematical mind. Describing experiments that show that human infants have a rudimentary number sense, Stanislas Dehaene suggests that this sense is as basic as our perception of color, and that it is wired into the brain. Dehaene shows that it was the invention of symbolic systems of numerals that started us on the climb to higher mathematics. A fascinating look at the crossroads where numbers and neurons intersect, The Number Sense offers an intriguing tour of how the structure of the brain shapes our mathematical abilities, and how our mathematics opens up a window on the human mind.

Quotations from Chairman Mao Tsetung

Author: Zedong Mao
Publisher: China Books
ISBN: 083512388X
Release Date: 1972
Genre: History

This new reprint brings back our best-selling book to date, in the familiar red plastic cover. Still popular as a textbook and primary document of the Cultural Revolution. The book that changed the world and shaped a generation of Chinese people, it contains the essence of Mao's philosophy, political thinking and military strategy.

Language

Author: Edward Sapir
Publisher: Harcourt
ISBN: HARVARD:TZ11TW
Release Date: 1921
Genre: Language Arts & Disciplines

A study of the sound, form, and structure of language and the way in which different languages relate to, and influence one another