Neuronal and Glial Proteins: Structure, Function, and Clinical Application focuses on the basic and clinical information relating to a number of proteins that are either enriched in or unique to nervous tissue. This book discusses the structural and functional characteristics of cell-specific proteins, which provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in processes that are specific to glia or neurons. Organized into three sections encompassing 15 chapters, this book starts with an overview of the fundamental principles and strategies involved in studying the anatomical, structural, functional, and immunological aspects of brain protein. This text then discusses the techniques, including the preparation of brain tissues as well as the preparation of neural and glial cells in purified form. Other chapters review the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, which is recognized as a significant technique for discovering brain molecules. The final chapter deals with the membrane-associated nervous system proteins. Neurochemists and clinical researchers will find this book useful.
Author: Michael Aschner
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 1996-03-27
It is well established that glial cells represent more than mere passive cytoskeletal support elements of the central and peripheral nervous system. A reciprocal relationship exists between neurons and glia that is vital for mutual differentiation, development, and functioning of both cell types. It also has become apparent that perturbations in glial function may lead to deleterious consequences in juxtaposed neurons. It is therefore possible that neuronal damage induced by chemicals or neuropathic disease involves dissociation of glial-neuronal interactions. The Role of Glia in Neurotoxicity brings together experts in the neurosciences to provide a more complete understanding of the effects of chemicals on nervous system function. This book explores potential sites of glial-neuronal interactions both in the central and peripheral nervous system, focusing on potential sites of neurotoxicant actions. Text introduces basic aspects of neuroscience, the first step toward understanding the mechanisms at work in normal physiology. The ways in which these processes are disturbed in pathological conditions are discussed. Distinguished authors examine the functional interactions between glial cells and neurons during development, adulthood, and senescence. The roles of glia in the normal CNS and PNS are described. The book offers specific, in-depth examples of directly (via diffusive and cell surface signals) or indirectly (via effects on the extracellular fluid or the blood-brain barrier) mediated glial neurotoxicity. This reference includes different techniques, conceptual frameworks, and approaches that are currently used in the study of the role of glia in neurotoxicity. This timely review not only presents an excellent overview of the state of the science but also provides direction for future research into the consequences of an altered glial-neuronal unit.
Gene expression is an active ongoing process that maintains a functional CNS, as proteins are being made on a continual basis. Processes such as learning and memory, nerve cell repair and regeneration and its response to stress are critically dependent on gene expression. This volume highlights the role of gene expression in normal CNS function, and presents many research methods at the cutting edge of neuroscience, which will provide insight into therapeutic approaches through which the control of gene expression may be used in the treatment of many nervous system diseases.
Interest in the functional roles of astrocytes in the nervous system has grown significantly as it is recognized that these cells not only have their own pharmacology but also release neuro- and vaso-active factors. This book relates astrocyte pharmacology to cell function for the first time, making it an attractive text across the neuroscience community. * Discusses the pharmacological regulation of specific astrocyte functions * Covers functional interactions between these and adjacent CNS cell types * Examines regional heterogeneity of astrocytes with respect to receptor expression * Compares in vitro and in vivo approaches
Author: Larry R. Squire
Publisher: Academic Press
Release Date: 2013
Fundamental Neuroscience, 3rd Edition introduces graduate and upper-level undergraduate students to the full range of contemporary neuroscience. Addressing instructor and student feedback on the previous edition, all of the chapters are rewritten to make this book more concise and student-friendly than ever before. Each chapter is once again heavily illustrated and provides clinical boxes describing experiments, disorders, and methodological approaches and concepts. A companion web site contains test questions, and an imagebank of the figures for ready use in presentations, slides, and handouts. Capturing the promise and excitement of this fast-moving field, Fundamental Neuroscience, 3rd Edition is the text that students will be able to reference throughout their neuroscience careers! New to this edition: * 30% new material including new chapters on Dendritic Development and Spine Morphogenesis, Chemical Senses, Cerebellum, Eye Movements, Circadian Timing, Sleep and Dreaming, and Consciousness * Companion website with figures, web links to additional material, and test questions * Additional text boxes describing key experiments, disorders, methods, and concepts * Multiple model system coverage beyond rats, mice, and monkeys * Extensively expanded index for easier referencing
Author: Patrick R. Hof
Publisher: Academic Press
Release Date: 2001-01-11
Some well-known age-related neurological diseases include Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, deafness, and blindness. Even more common are the problems of aging which are not due to disease but to more subtle impairments in neurobiological systems, including impairments in vision, memory loss, muscle weakening, and loss of reproductive functions, changes in body weight, and sleeplessness. As the average age of our society increases, diseases of aging continue to become more common, and conditions associated with aging need more attention by doctors and researchers. In 1991, patients over the age of 65 saw their doctors an average of eight times per year. Research funding is provided by the Neuroscience and Neuropsychology of Aging (NNA) Program, which is run by the National Institute on Aging. This book offers a comprehensive overview of all topics related to functional impairments which are related to the aging brain and nervous system. It is organized according to four general functions: movement, senses, memory, and neuroendocrine regulation. Written by the leading researchers in the field, this comprehensive work addresses both impairments associated with diseases and not associated with diseases, making it easier to understand the mechanisms involved. Functional Neurobiology of Aging is an important reference for professionals and students involved in aging research, as well as physicians who need to recognize and understand age-related impairments. Organized by function, making it easy to find and understand the material Addresses impairments both associated with diseases and not associated with diseases Written by leading researchers in the field Most comprehensive source of information on the neurobiology of aging
Author: Masatoshi Takeda
Publisher: Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers
Release Date: 2004
Alzheimers disease affects 6-10% of the elderly population, causing impairment in cognitive functions and significant disability in daily living for more than ten years. Neurofibrillary tangles, amyloid deposits and neuronal loss are the three hallmarks of Alzheimers disease. Due to insolubility of these unique structures in Alzheimer brain tissue, they were very difficult to study by usual biochemical methods in the past. Active research is now going on to elucidate the pathogenesis of Alzheimers disease. Major topics of neurobiological study of Alzheimers disease include the unraveling of the molecular mechanism of neurofibrillary tangle formation in neuronal and glial cells, the molecular processing of amyloid precursor protein in intracellular organella and in extra-cellular space, and the molecular mechanism of neuronal loss. The articles in this book were selected from contributions presented by leading scientists in this field at the international symposium which took place in Osaka in 2002. This publication is essential reading for all researchers, clinicians, basic and social scientists, neurologists and psychiatrists to promote the understanding of this formidable disease.
Author: Alexei Verkhratsky
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2007-08-20
"This volume is a very valuable and much needed contribution." –Quarterly Review of Biology AT LAST - A comprehensive, accessible textbook on glial neurobiology! Glial cells are the most numerous cells in the human brain but for many years have attracted little scientific attention. Neurophysiologists concentrated their research efforts instead, on neurones and neuronal networks because it was thought that they were the key elements responsible for higher brain function. Recent advances, however, indicate this isn’t exactly the case. Not only are astroglial cells the stem elements from which neurones are born, but they also control the development, functional activity and death of neuronal circuits. These ground-breaking developments have revolutionized our understanding of the human brain and the complex interrelationship of glial and neuronal networks in health and disease. Features of this book: an accessible introduction to glial neurobiology including an overview of glial cell function and its active role in neural processes, brain function and nervous system pathology an exploration of all the major types of glial cells including: the astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia of the ACNS and Schwann cells of the peripheral nervous system; the book also presents a broad overview of glial receptors and ion channels an investigation into the role of glial cells in various types of brain diseases including stroke, neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Alexander's disease, brain oedema, multiple sclerosis and many more a wealth of illustrations, including unique images from the authors' own libraries of images, describing the main features of glial cells Written by two leading experts in the field, Glial Neurobiology provides a concise, authoritative introduction to glial physiology and pathology for undergraduate/postgraduate neuroscience, biomedical, medical, pharmacy, pharmacology, and neurology, neurosurgery and physiology students. It is also an invaluable resource for researchers in neuroscience, physiology, pharmacology and pharmaceutics.
Author: Maree J. Webster
Release Date: 2018-03-26
Brain Banking, Volume 150, serves as the only book on the market offering comprehensive coverage of the functional realities of brain banking. It focuses on brain donor recruitment strategies, brain bank networks, ethical issues, brain dissection/tissue processing/tissue dissemination, neuropathological diagnosis, brain donor data, and techniques in brain tissue analysis. In accordance with massive initiatives, such as BRAIN and the EU Human Brain Project, abnormalities and potential therapeutic targets of neurological and psychiatric disorders need to be validated in human brain tissue, thus requiring substantial numbers of well characterized human brains of high tissue quality with neurological and psychiatric diseases. Offers comprehensive coverage of the functional realities of brain banking, with a focus on brain donor recruitment strategies, brain bank networks, ethical issues, and more Serves as a valuable resource for staff in existing brain banks by highlighting best practices Enhances the sharing of expertise between existing banks and highlights a range of techniques applicable to banked tissue for neuroscience researchers Authored by leaders from brain banks around the globe - the broadest, most expert coverage available