Neuronal and Glial Proteins: Structure, Function, and Clinical Application focuses on the basic and clinical information relating to a number of proteins that are either enriched in or unique to nervous tissue. This book discusses the structural and functional characteristics of cell-specific proteins, which provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in processes that are specific to glia or neurons. Organized into three sections encompassing 15 chapters, this book starts with an overview of the fundamental principles and strategies involved in studying the anatomical, structural, functional, and immunological aspects of brain protein. This text then discusses the techniques, including the preparation of brain tissues as well as the preparation of neural and glial cells in purified form. Other chapters review the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, which is recognized as a significant technique for discovering brain molecules. The final chapter deals with the membrane-associated nervous system proteins. Neurochemists and clinical researchers will find this book useful.
Author: Michael Aschner
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 1996-03-27
It is well established that glial cells represent more than mere passive cytoskeletal support elements of the central and peripheral nervous system. A reciprocal relationship exists between neurons and glia that is vital for mutual differentiation, development, and functioning of both cell types. It also has become apparent that perturbations in glial function may lead to deleterious consequences in juxtaposed neurons. It is therefore possible that neuronal damage induced by chemicals or neuropathic disease involves dissociation of glial-neuronal interactions. The Role of Glia in Neurotoxicity brings together experts in the neurosciences to provide a more complete understanding of the effects of chemicals on nervous system function. This book explores potential sites of glial-neuronal interactions both in the central and peripheral nervous system, focusing on potential sites of neurotoxicant actions. Text introduces basic aspects of neuroscience, the first step toward understanding the mechanisms at work in normal physiology. The ways in which these processes are disturbed in pathological conditions are discussed. Distinguished authors examine the functional interactions between glial cells and neurons during development, adulthood, and senescence. The roles of glia in the normal CNS and PNS are described. The book offers specific, in-depth examples of directly (via diffusive and cell surface signals) or indirectly (via effects on the extracellular fluid or the blood-brain barrier) mediated glial neurotoxicity. This reference includes different techniques, conceptual frameworks, and approaches that are currently used in the study of the role of glia in neurotoxicity. This timely review not only presents an excellent overview of the state of the science but also provides direction for future research into the consequences of an altered glial-neuronal unit.
Gene expression is an active ongoing process that maintains a functional CNS, as proteins are being made on a continual basis. Processes such as learning and memory, nerve cell repair and regeneration and its response to stress are critically dependent on gene expression. This volume highlights the role of gene expression in normal CNS function, and presents many research methods at the cutting edge of neuroscience, which will provide insight into therapeutic approaches through which the control of gene expression may be used in the treatment of many nervous system diseases.
Interest in the functional roles of astrocytes in the nervous system has grown significantly as it is recognized that these cells not only have their own pharmacology but also release neuro- and vaso-active factors. This book relates astrocyte pharmacology to cell function for the first time, making it an attractive text across the neuroscience community. * Discusses the pharmacological regulation of specific astrocyte functions * Covers functional interactions between these and adjacent CNS cell types * Examines regional heterogeneity of astrocytes with respect to receptor expression * Compares in vitro and in vivo approaches
Author: Masatoshi Takeda
Publisher: Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers
Release Date: 2004
Alzheimers disease affects 6-10% of the elderly population, causing impairment in cognitive functions and significant disability in daily living for more than ten years. Neurofibrillary tangles, amyloid deposits and neuronal loss are the three hallmarks of Alzheimers disease. Due to insolubility of these unique structures in Alzheimer brain tissue, they were very difficult to study by usual biochemical methods in the past. Active research is now going on to elucidate the pathogenesis of Alzheimers disease. Major topics of neurobiological study of Alzheimers disease include the unraveling of the molecular mechanism of neurofibrillary tangle formation in neuronal and glial cells, the molecular processing of amyloid precursor protein in intracellular organella and in extra-cellular space, and the molecular mechanism of neuronal loss. The articles in this book were selected from contributions presented by leading scientists in this field at the international symposium which took place in Osaka in 2002. This publication is essential reading for all researchers, clinicians, basic and social scientists, neurologists and psychiatrists to promote the understanding of this formidable disease.
Author: Ramon Lim
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2006-09-18
"The Handbook is intended to be a service to the neuroscience community, to help in finding available and useful information, to point out gaps in our knowledge, and to encourage continued studies. It represents the valuable contributions of the many authors of the chapters and the guidance of the editors and most important, it represents support for research in this discipline. Based on the rapid advances in the years since the second edition."--Publisher's website.
Author: Randi Hagerman
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 2014-04-25
This cutting-edge book brings advances in genetics, neurobiology, and psychopharmacology to the clinic to enhance treatment for neurodevelopmental disorders. Significant progress has been made in identifying the neurobiological mechanisms of several disorders and targeted treatments are modifying the outcome of these disorders. However, the ability to utilize this knowledge has not been summarized in one place for the practicing clinician. This book will fill that gap by providing the theoretical underpinnings and the latest advances in targeted treatments. Several neurodevelopmental disorders are reviewed in detail including clinical features and behavioral phenotypes, standard treatments and new targeted treatments based on the latest advances in neurobiology and the animal model studies that have led to new treatments. The disorders covered include psychiatric disorders: schizophrenia, depression, autism and ADHD; single gene disorders including Tuberous Sclerosis, Fragile X Syndrome and fragile X- associated disorders, Angelman Syndrome, PKU, and Muscular Dystrophies; and complex genetic disorders such as Down syndrome. This book also highlights the commonalities across disorders and new genetic and molecular concepts in an easy to read format. This is a very exciting time for new targeted treatments and this volume is a landmark treatise on this new age of treatment.
Author: T. Herdegen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2004
Brain Damage and Repair aims to attract the interest of neuroscientists and clinical neurologists by building a novel bridge from molecular research to clinical therapy. This novel approach reveals the functional features of neurons and glia in the particular context of vulnerability and self-protection, intracellular properties and extracellular matrix. Arising from this platform, this volume unfolds the molecular and systemic processes underlying migration disorders, axonal injury, repair and regeneration. Comprehensive chapters on neurological diseases, such as M. Alzheimer, M. Parkinson, ALS, stroke or trauma, take this knowledge, apply it at the clinical level to provide a basis for novel therapeutic strategies. Brain Damage and Repair is completed with chapters on imaging techniques, viral gene transfer or legal international handling of stem cell transfer and patents of DNA/proteins.