Author: Moha Ennaji
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2005-01-20
In this book, I attempt to show how colonial and postcolonial political forces have endeavoured to reconstruct the national identity of Morocco, on the basis of cultural representations and ideological constructions closely related to nationalist and ethnolinguistic trends. I discuss how the issue of language is at the centre of the current cultural and political debates in Morocco. The present book is an investigation of the ramifications of multilingualism for language choice patterns and attitudes among Moroccans. More importantly, the book assesses the roles played by linguistic and cultural factors in the development and evolution of Moroccan society. It also focuses on the impact of multilingualism on cultural authenticity and national identity. Having been involved in research on language and culture for many years, I am particularly interested in linguistic and cultural assimilation or alienation, and under what conditions it takes place, especially today that more and more Moroccans speak French and are influenced by Western social behaviour more than ever before. In the process, I provide the reader with an updated description of the different facets of language use, language maintenance and shift, and language attitudes, focusing on the linguistic situation whose analysis is often blurred by emotional reactions, ideological discourses, political biases, simplistic assessments, and ethnolinguistic identities.
Author: Andreas Pott
Release Date: 2015-01-27
Genre: Social Science
1963 wurde zwischen Deutschland und Marokko ein Anwerbeabkommen vereinbart. Aus der „vorübergehenden Beschäftigung“ marokkanischer „Gastarbeiter“ ist längst eine vielschichtige Einwanderungsgeschichte geworden. Den frühen Bergwerksarbeitern folgten bald Frauen und Kinder, später auch hoch qualifizierte Bildungsmigranten. In der zweiten und dritten Generation fanden teilweise erfolgreiche Aufstiege statt. Diese Prozesse trugen dazu bei, dass die Gruppe der marokkanischen Migranten und ihrer Nachkommen heute ähnlich heterogen wie die Migrationsgesellschaft insgesamt ist. Der Band widmet sich der Migration und Integration dieser bisher kaum beachteten Gruppe. Die interdisziplinäre Bestandsaufnahme geht aus einer Kooperation des Deutsch-Marokkanischen Kompetenznetzwerks (DMK) mit dem Institut für Migrationsforschung und Interkulturelle Studien (IMIS) der Universität Osnabrück hervor.
The recent multilingual turn involves various different implicit and explicit language policies, urging pressure and resistance with regard to the spread of English and its dominant relationships with other national languages. As such, this book considers the social value of communication as the basis of multilingualism and of the evolution of language systems. The data presented here show English as being in the middle of the double “listening” of cultural mediation and the imperfect “magnifying” glass of translation, with worldwide Standard English being but one of the many other related varieties which enjoy prestige on a large scale. These varieties may be identified according to different features which make the plural “world Englishes” an umbrella term with blurred edges. New approaches to dialects study have been developed in recent decades, and cartographic mapping has overlapped with the emergence of a new dialectology which deals with the description of language phenomena as complex concepts, where “complexity” provides a challenging framework for investigation and research of languages as dynamic systems made up of variables which mutually influence each other. Thus, dialectometry, dialectology and standardization become interesting tools for measuring linguistic differences, establishing language typologies and endorsing the systemic characteristics which can be formalized. Comprehensive and well-informed, this volume will appeal to anyone interested in the spread of English, from researchers and teachers to students, providing them with a greater understanding of some examples of world Englishes analysed under the light of complexity as a product of global society.
This book documents current research showing how, in countries where educational practices are inclusive of linguistic diversity and responsive to local conditions, implementation of bi/multiilingual education in both system-wide and minority settings can be successful.
Author: Medha Raj
Publisher: Georgetown University Press
Release Date: 2014-09-08
Genre: Political Science
According to the United Nations, 9.6 billion people will inhabit our planet by 2050. Population growth and movement will have an enormous impact on global dynamics in the twenty-first century, in both the developing world as well as in advanced industrialized societies. In light of this global demographic reality, this issue of the Georgetown Journal of International Affairs focuses on the topic of "Destabilizing Demographics," exploring the opportunities and challenges presented by dynamic population patterns and structures. Demographic shifts affect multiple facets of international affairs, impacting economies, modifying politics, and reshaping the fabric of our societies. These changes could have catastrophic international consequences if ignored or evaded. However, as this issue's Forum demonstrates, the future holds promise for those who choose to reorganize on the cusp of significant population transformation. Adaptation as a form of mitigation must be informed by diverse solutions and multi-sectoral cooperation. Consider, for example, the intersection of family planning and climate change, or the connection between gender gaps and crime. Through pragmatic policymaking and international collaboration, seismic demographic change may not necessitate disaster. We round out this issue with articles regarding decidedly twenty-first century concerns: communication, integration, and globalization. Moha Ennaji describes the challenges of Berber language incorporation in Morocco and its significance to democratic reform. Dan Saxon examines the role of human judgment in semi-autonomous weapons use, questioning the ethics of unmanned machines. Andrés Monroy-Hernández and Luis Daniel Palacios analyze the utility, efficacy, and implications of citizen journalism within Mexico's ongoing drug war. And Lawrence Gostin and Alexandra Phelan explore how, in an increasingly interconnected world, the international community can collectively prevent and control the spread of infectious diseases. The Georgetown Journal of International Affairs is the official publication of the Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University. Each issue of the journal provides readers with a diverse array of timely, peer-reviewed content penned by top policymakers, business leaders, and academic luminaries. The Journal takes a holistic approach to international affairs and features a 'Forum' that offers focused analysis on a specific key issue with each new edition of the publication, as well as nine regular sections: Books, Business & Economics, Conflict & Security, Culture & Society, Law & Ethics, A Look Back, Politics & Diplomacy, Science & Technology, and View from the Ground.
Author: Natasha Iskander
Publisher: Cornell University Press
Release Date: 2015-01-26
Genre: Social Science
At the turn of the twenty-first century, with the amount of money emigrants sent home soaring to new highs, governments around the world began searching for ways to capitalize on emigration for economic growth, and they looked to nations that already had policies in place. Morocco and Mexico featured prominently as sources of "best practices" in this area, with tailor-made financial instruments that brought migrants into the banking system, captured remittances for national development projects, fostered partnerships with emigrants for infrastructure design and provision, hosted transnational forums for development planning, and emboldened cross-border political lobbies. In Creative State, Natasha Iskander chronicles how these innovative policies emerged and evolved over forty years. She reveals that the Moroccan and Mexican policies emulated as models of excellence were not initially devised to link emigration to development, but rather were deployed to strengthen both governments' domestic hold on power. The process of policy design, however, was so iterative and improvisational that neither the governments nor their migrant constituencies ever predicted, much less intended, the ways the new initiatives would gradually but fundamentally redefine nationhood, development, and citizenship. Morocco's and Mexico's experiences with migration and development policy demonstrate that far from being a prosaic institution resistant to change, the state can be a remarkable site of creativity, an essential but often overlooked component of good governance.
Die Evolution des menschlichen Moralbewusstseins gehört zu den großen Rätseln der Wissenschaft. Es hat die Phantasie von Generationen von Forschern beflügelt, zahlreiche Theorien liegen auf dem Tisch, aber die Frage »Woher kommt die Moral?« ist nach wie vor offen. In Fortschreibung seiner faszinierenden Naturgeschichte des Menschen legt nun Michael Tomasello eine Antwort vor. Gestützt auf jahrzehntelange empirische Forschungen, rekonstruiert er die Entstehung des einzigartigen menschlichen Sinns für Werte und Normen als einen zweistufigen Prozess. Dieser beginnt vor einigen hunderttausend Jahren, als die frühen Menschen gemeinsame Sache machen mussten, um zu überleben; und er endet beim modernen, ultrakooperativen homo sapiens sapiens, der beides besitzt: Eine Moralität der zweiten Person, die unseren Umgang mit dem je einzelnen Gegenüber prägt, und eine gruppenbezogene »objektive« Moral, die sagt, was hier bei »uns« als gut oder gerecht gilt. In der Tradition von Mead, Kohlberg und Piaget zeigt Tomasello außerdem, wie sich die individuelle Moralentwicklung in einer bereits normengesättigten Welt vollzieht. Und so ist Eine Naturgeschichte der menschlichen Moral der derzeit wohl umfassendste Versuch zu verstehen, wie wir das geworden sind, was nur wir sind: genuin moralische Wesen.
Author: Elizabeth C. Zsiga
Publisher: Georgetown University Press
Release Date: 2015-03-03
Genre: Language Arts & Disciplines
People in many African communities live within a series of concentric circles when it comes to language. In a small group, a speaker uses an often unwritten and endangered mother tongue that is rarely used in school. A national indigenous language—written, widespread, sometimes used in school—surrounds it. An international language like French or English, a vestige of colonialism, carries prestige, is used in higher education, and promises mobility—and yet it will not be well known by its users. The essays in Languages in Africa explore the layers of African multilingualism as they affect language policy and education. Through case studies ranging across the continent, the contributors consider multilingualism in the classroom as well as in domains ranging from music and film to politics and figurative language. The contributors report on the widespread devaluing and even death of indigenous languages. They also investigate how poor teacher training leads to language-related failures in education. At the same time, they demonstrate that education in a mother tongue can work, linguists can use their expertise to provoke changes in language policies, and linguistic creativity thrives in these multilingual communities.
Author: Andrew Simpson
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 2008-02-07
This book focuses on language, culture, and identity in nineteen countries in Africa. Leading specialists, mainly from Africa, describe national linguistic and political histories, assess the status of majority and minority languages, and consider the role of language in ethnic conflict.
Investigating the connections between multiculturalism, minorities, citizenship, and democracy in North Africa, this book argues that multiculturalism in this region– and in the Arab world at large – has reached a significant level in terms of scale and importance. In the rest of the world, there has been a trend – albeit a contested one – toward a greater recognition of minority rights. The Arab world however, particularly North Africa, seems to be an exception to this trend, as Arab states continue to promote highly unitary and homogenizing ideas of nationhood and state unity, whilst discouraging, or even forbidding, minority political mobilization. The central theoretical premise of this book is that North Africa is a multicultural region, where culture is inherently linked to politics, religion, gender, and society, and a place where democracy is gradually taking root despite many political and economic hurdles. Addressing the lacuna in literature on this issue, this book opens new avenues of thought and research on diversity, linking policy based on cultural difference to democratic culture and to social justice. Multiculturalism and Democracy in North Africa will be of use to students and researchers with an interest in Sociology, Cultural Studies, and Political Science more broadly.
Author: Gabriele Budach
Publisher: Peter Lang
Release Date: 2008
Migration und Mehrsprachigkeit stellen die Schulen in vielen Landern vor eine bedeutende Herausforderung: Wie sollen sie mit der sprachlichen Verschiedenheit umgehen? Der Band stellt Konzepte und Erfahrungen zum mehrsprachigen Lehren und Lernen und insbesondere das Modell der doppelten Immersion vor. La migration et le plurilinguisme sont un defi majeur pour les systemes educatifs de nombreux pays: comment nos ecoles peuvent-elles gerer la diversite linguistique ? Ce volume rassemble des approches theoriques et rend compte d'experiences d'apprentissage et d'enseignement plurilingues, notamment du modele de l'immersion reciproque. How to deal with linguistic diversity? Migration and multilingualism raise substantial issues for schools in many countries. This volume engages with concepts such as double immersion and presents experiences with multilingual teaching and learning from Europe and the US."
Author: Ulrich Ammon
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
Release Date: 2004-01-01
Genre: Language Arts & Disciplines
The series Handbooks of Linguistics and Communication Science is designed to illuminate a field which not only includes general linguistics and the study of linguistics as applied to specific languages, but also covers those more recent areas which have developed from the increasing body of research into the manifold forms of communicative action and interaction.