Multilingualism Cultural Identity and Education in Morocco

Author: Moha Ennaji
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387239790
Release Date: 2005-01-20
Genre: Education

In this book, I attempt to show how colonial and postcolonial political forces have endeavoured to reconstruct the national identity of Morocco, on the basis of cultural representations and ideological constructions closely related to nationalist and ethnolinguistic trends. I discuss how the issue of language is at the centre of the current cultural and political debates in Morocco. The present book is an investigation of the ramifications of multilingualism for language choice patterns and attitudes among Moroccans. More importantly, the book assesses the roles played by linguistic and cultural factors in the development and evolution of Moroccan society. It also focuses on the impact of multilingualism on cultural authenticity and national identity. Having been involved in research on language and culture for many years, I am particularly interested in linguistic and cultural assimilation or alienation, and under what conditions it takes place, especially today that more and more Moroccans speak French and are influenced by Western social behaviour more than ever before. In the process, I provide the reader with an updated description of the different facets of language use, language maintenance and shift, and language attitudes, focusing on the linguistic situation whose analysis is often blurred by emotional reactions, ideological discourses, political biases, simplistic assessments, and ethnolinguistic identities.

Eine Naturgeschichte der menschlichen Moral

Author: Michael Tomasello
Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag
ISBN: 9783518748220
Release Date: 2016-09-11
Genre: Psychology

Die Evolution des menschlichen Moralbewusstseins gehört zu den großen Rätseln der Wissenschaft. Es hat die Phantasie von Generationen von Forschern beflügelt, zahlreiche Theorien liegen auf dem Tisch, aber die Frage »Woher kommt die Moral?« ist nach wie vor offen. In Fortschreibung seiner faszinierenden Naturgeschichte des Menschen legt nun Michael Tomasello eine Antwort vor. Gestützt auf jahrzehntelange empirische Forschungen, rekonstruiert er die Entstehung des einzigartigen menschlichen Sinns für Werte und Normen als einen zweistufigen Prozess. Dieser beginnt vor einigen hunderttausend Jahren, als die frühen Menschen gemeinsame Sache machen mussten, um zu überleben; und er endet beim modernen, ultrakooperativen homo sapiens sapiens, der beides besitzt: Eine Moralität der zweiten Person, die unseren Umgang mit dem je einzelnen Gegenüber prägt, und eine gruppenbezogene »objektive« Moral, die sagt, was hier bei »uns« als gut oder gerecht gilt. In der Tradition von Mead, Kohlberg und Piaget zeigt Tomasello außerdem, wie sich die individuelle Moralentwicklung in einer bereits normengesättigten Welt vollzieht. Und so ist Eine Naturgeschichte der menschlichen Moral der derzeit wohl umfassendste Versuch zu verstehen, wie wir das geworden sind, was nur wir sind: genuin moralische Wesen.

Jenseits von Rif und Ruhr

Author: Andreas Pott
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 9783658008994
Release Date: 2015-01-27
Genre: Social Science

1963 wurde zwischen Deutschland und Marokko ein Anwerbeabkommen vereinbart. Aus der „vorübergehenden Beschäftigung“ marokkanischer „Gastarbeiter“ ist längst eine vielschichtige Einwanderungsgeschichte geworden. Den frühen Bergwerksarbeitern folgten bald Frauen und Kinder, später auch hoch qualifizierte Bildungsmigranten. In der zweiten und dritten Generation fanden teilweise erfolgreiche Aufstiege statt. Diese Prozesse trugen dazu bei, dass die Gruppe der marokkanischen Migranten und ihrer Nachkommen heute ähnlich heterogen wie die Migrationsgesellschaft insgesamt ist. Der Band widmet sich der Migration und Integration dieser bisher kaum beachteten Gruppe. Die interdisziplinäre Bestandsaufnahme geht aus einer Kooperation des Deutsch-Marokkanischen Kompetenznetzwerks (DMK) mit dem Institut für Migrationsforschung und Interkulturelle Studien (IMIS) der Universität Osnabrück hervor.

World English es and the Multilingual Turn

Author: Annalisa Bonomo
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
ISBN: 9781443869386
Release Date: 2017-01-06
Genre:

The recent multilingual turn involves various different implicit and explicit language policies, urging pressure and resistance with regard to the spread of English and its dominant relationships with other national languages. As such, this book considers the social value of communication as the basis of multilingualism and of the evolution of language systems. The data presented here show English as being in the middle of the double “listening” of cultural mediation and the imperfect “magnifying” glass of translation, with worldwide Standard English being but one of the many other related varieties which enjoy prestige on a large scale. These varieties may be identified according to different features which make the plural “world Englishes” an umbrella term with blurred edges. New approaches to dialects study have been developed in recent decades, and cartographic mapping has overlapped with the emergence of a new dialectology which deals with the description of language phenomena as complex concepts, where “complexity” provides a challenging framework for investigation and research of languages as dynamic systems made up of variables which mutually influence each other. Thus, dialectometry, dialectology and standardization become interesting tools for measuring linguistic differences, establishing language typologies and endorsing the systemic characteristics which can be formalized. Comprehensive and well-informed, this volume will appeal to anyone interested in the spread of English, from researchers and teachers to students, providing them with a greater understanding of some examples of world Englishes analysed under the light of complexity as a product of global society.

Multilingual Education and Sustainable Diversity Work

Author: Tove Skutnabb-Kangas
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781136718281
Release Date: 2013-06-17
Genre: Education

This book documents current research showing how, in countries where educational practices are inclusive of linguistic diversity and responsive to local conditions, implementation of bi/multiilingual education in both system-wide and minority settings can be successful.

Georgetown Journal of International Affairs

Author: Medha Raj
Publisher: Georgetown University Press
ISBN: 9781626161566
Release Date: 2014-09-08
Genre: Political Science

According to the United Nations, 9.6 billion people will inhabit our planet by 2050. Population growth and movement will have an enormous impact on global dynamics in the twenty-first century, in both the developing world as well as in advanced industrialized societies. In light of this global demographic reality, this issue of the Georgetown Journal of International Affairs focuses on the topic of "Destabilizing Demographics," exploring the opportunities and challenges presented by dynamic population patterns and structures. Demographic shifts affect multiple facets of international affairs, impacting economies, modifying politics, and reshaping the fabric of our societies. These changes could have catastrophic international consequences if ignored or evaded. However, as this issue's Forum demonstrates, the future holds promise for those who choose to reorganize on the cusp of significant population transformation. Adaptation as a form of mitigation must be informed by diverse solutions and multi-sectoral cooperation. Consider, for example, the intersection of family planning and climate change, or the connection between gender gaps and crime. Through pragmatic policymaking and international collaboration, seismic demographic change may not necessitate disaster. We round out this issue with articles regarding decidedly twenty-first century concerns: communication, integration, and globalization. Moha Ennaji describes the challenges of Berber language incorporation in Morocco and its significance to democratic reform. Dan Saxon examines the role of human judg­ment in semi-autonomous weapons use, questioning the ethics of unmanned machines. Andrés Monroy-Hernández and Luis Daniel Palacios analyze the utility, efficacy, and implications of citizen journalism within Mexico's ongoing drug war. And Lawrence Gostin and Alexandra Phelan explore how, in an increasingly interconnected world, the international community can collectively prevent and control the spread of infectious diseases. The Georgetown Journal of International Affairs is the official publication of the Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University. Each issue of the journal provides readers with a diverse array of timely, peer-reviewed content penned by top policymakers, business leaders, and academic luminaries. The Journal takes a holistic approach to international affairs and features a 'Forum' that offers focused analysis on a specific key issue with each new edition of the publication, as well as nine regular sections: Books, Business & Economics, Conflict & Security, Culture & Society, Law & Ethics, A Look Back, Politics & Diplomacy, Science & Technology, and View from the Ground.

Nairobi Heat

Author: Mukoma wa Ngugi
Publisher: Transit Buchverlag
ISBN: 9783887473037
Release Date: 2014-02-18
Genre: Fiction

In einem reichen, weißen Vorort von Madison/Wisconsin wird eine junge blonde Frau tot aufgefunden. Das Haus, vor dem die Tote liegt, gehört einem afrikanischen Professor, der für seine Rettungstaten während des Völkermords in Ruanda weltweit als Held verehrt wird. Der schwarze Detective, der in dem Fall ermittelt, fliegt aufgrund eines mysteriösen Anrufs nach Nairobi, Kenia, wo er zusammen mit seinem afrikanischen Kollegen der Vergangenheit des Professors auf die Spur kommen will. Schnell wird klar, dass es hier um viel mehr geht als den Tod eines weißen Mädchens. Es entwickelt sich eine heiße Jagd in einem Sumpf von Korruption, Intrigen und Gewalt. Gleichzeitig ist es auch die Konfrontation des Detectives aus den reichen USA mit Afrika, seiner Geschichte und Kultur, und nicht zuletzt mit der eigenen Identität...

Creative State

Author: Natasha Iskander
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 9780801462047
Release Date: 2015-01-26
Genre: Social Science

At the turn of the twenty-first century, with the amount of money emigrants sent home soaring to new highs, governments around the world began searching for ways to capitalize on emigration for economic growth, and they looked to nations that already had policies in place. Morocco and Mexico featured prominently as sources of "best practices" in this area, with tailor-made financial instruments that brought migrants into the banking system, captured remittances for national development projects, fostered partnerships with emigrants for infrastructure design and provision, hosted transnational forums for development planning, and emboldened cross-border political lobbies. In Creative State, Natasha Iskander chronicles how these innovative policies emerged and evolved over forty years. She reveals that the Moroccan and Mexican policies emulated as models of excellence were not initially devised to link emigration to development, but rather were deployed to strengthen both governments' domestic hold on power. The process of policy design, however, was so iterative and improvisational that neither the governments nor their migrant constituencies ever predicted, much less intended, the ways the new initiatives would gradually but fundamentally redefine nationhood, development, and citizenship. Morocco's and Mexico's experiences with migration and development policy demonstrate that far from being a prosaic institution resistant to change, the state can be a remarkable site of creativity, an essential but often overlooked component of good governance.

Languages in Africa

Author: Elizabeth C. Zsiga
Publisher: Georgetown University Press
ISBN: 9781626161535
Release Date: 2015-03-03
Genre: Language Arts & Disciplines

People in many African communities live within a series of concentric circles when it comes to language. In a small group, a speaker uses an often unwritten and endangered mother tongue that is rarely used in school. A national indigenous language—written, widespread, sometimes used in school—surrounds it. An international language like French or English, a vestige of colonialism, carries prestige, is used in higher education, and promises mobility—and yet it will not be well known by its users. The essays in Languages in Africa explore the layers of African multilingualism as they affect language policy and education. Through case studies ranging across the continent, the contributors consider multilingualism in the classroom as well as in domains ranging from music and film to politics and figurative language. The contributors report on the widespread devaluing and even death of indigenous languages. They also investigate how poor teacher training leads to language-related failures in education. At the same time, they demonstrate that education in a mother tongue can work, linguists can use their expertise to provoke changes in language policies, and linguistic creativity thrives in these multilingual communities.

Language and National Identity in Africa

Author: Andrew Simpson
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199286744
Release Date: 2008-02-07
Genre: History

This book focuses on language, culture, and identity in nineteen countries in Africa. Leading specialists, mainly from Africa, describe national linguistic and political histories, assess the status of majority and minority languages, and consider the role of language in ethnic conflict.

Kampf um Wort und Schrift

Author: Zaur Gasimov
Publisher: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht
ISBN: 9783647101224
Release Date: 2012-04-18
Genre: History

Seit Beginn der Neuzeit expandierte das Moskauer Fürstentum gen Westen und Süden. Zu Zeiten der Romanov-Dynastie umfasste Russland weite Gebiete mit überwiegend nichtrussischer und konfessionell heterogener Bevölkerung. Nach den Teilungen Polens sowie der Eroberung des Kaukasus und Zentralasiens im 18./19. Jahrhundert erhielt das Zarenreich Kontrolle über weitere alte Kulturräume, die es im Zuge der Kolonialisierung ab Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts zu assimilieren versuchte. Diese Versuche erfolgten nicht zuletzt mittels der Sprachpolitik: Polnisch, Ukrainisch und Litauisch wurden verboten, das Russische sollte im Bildungs- und Behördenwesen im gesamten Imperium dominieren.