Language Universals and Variation

Author: Mengistu Amberber
Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
ISBN: 0275976831
Release Date: 2002-01-01
Genre: Business & Economics

Issues addressed in this contributed volume include lexical semantics, morphosyntax, and phonology, based on the broad theme of formal approaches to language universals and variation. Aspects of natural language variation are investigated from a formal theoretical perspective, including the Principles and Parameters/Minimalist Program, Lexical Functional Grammar, and Optimality Theory. A wide range of languages and language families are considered, including Amharic, Arabic, Bantu, Berber, Chamorro, English, French, Japanese, Malyalam, Polish, Spanish, Tagalog, Turkish, and Warlpiri. This is a significant addition to the growing body of literature on language universals and variation from formal theoretical perspectives. The covered topics are diverse, ranging from pronominal clitic variation in dialects of Spanish, to passives in Bantu and Polish, to the typology of Wh-in-situ questions and vowel place constraints, making this an indispensable useful reference to linguistics specialists and other cognitive scientists.

Competition and Variation in Natural Languages

Author: Mengistu Amberber
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080459773
Release Date: 2005-06-30
Genre: Language Arts & Disciplines

This volume combines different perspectives on case-marking: (1) typological and descriptive approaches of various types and instances of case-marking in the languages of the world as well as comparison with languages that express similar types of relations without morphological case-marking; (2) formal analyses in different theoretical frameworks of the syntactic, semantic, and morphological properties of case-marking; (3) a historical approach of case-marking; (4) a psycholinguistic approach of case-marking. Although there are a number of publications on case related issues, there is no volume such as the present one, which exclusively looks at case marking, competition and variation from a cross-linguistic perspective and within the context of different contemporary theoretical approaches to the study of language. In addition to chapters with broad conceptual orientation, the volume offers detailed empirical studies of case in a number of diverse languages including: Amharic, Basque, Dutch, Hindi, Japanese, Kuuk Thaayorre, Malagasy and Yurakaré. The volume will be of interest to researchers and advanced students in the cognitive sciences, general linguistics, typology, historical linguistics, formal linguistics, and psycholinguistics. The book will interest scholars working within the context of formal syntactic and semantic theories as it provides insight into the properties of case from a cross-linguistic perspective. The book also will be of interest to cognitive scientists interested in the relationship between meaning and grammar, in particular, and the human mind's capacity in the mapping of meaning onto grammar, in general.

Handbook of Cognitive Science

Author: Paco Calvo
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080466163
Release Date: 2008
Genre: Language Arts & Disciplines

The Handbook of Cognitive Science provides an overview of recent developments in cognition research, relying upon non-classical approaches. Cognition is explained as the continuous interplay between brain, body, and environment, without relying on classical notions of computations and representation to explain cognition. The handbook serves as a valuable companion for readers interested in foundational aspects of cognitive science, and neuroscience and the philosophy of mind. The handbook begins with an introduction to embodied cognitive science, and then breaks up the chapters into separate sections on conceptual issues, formal approaches, embodiment in perception and action, embodiment from an artificial perspective, embodied meaning, and emotion and consciousness. Contributors to the book represent research overviews from around the globe including the US, UK, Spain, Germany, Switzerland, France, Sweden, and the Netherlands.

Cognitive Linguistics

Author: Prof. Vyvyan Evans
Publisher: Edinburgh University Press
ISBN: 9780748626502
Release Date: 2006-08-02
Genre: Language Arts & Disciplines

An authoritative general introduction to cognitive linguistics, this book provides up-to-date coverage of all areas of the field and sets in context recent developments within cognitive semantics (including primary metaphors, conceptual blending and Principled Polysemy), and cognitive approaches to grammar (including Radical Construction Grammar and Embodied Construction Grammar). While all topics are introduced in terms accessible to both undergraduate and postgraduate students, this work is sufficiently comprehensive and detailed to serve as a reference work for scholars from linguistics and neighbouring disciplines who wish to gain a better understanding of cognitive linguistics. The book is divided into three parts (The cognitive linguistics enterprise; Cognitive semantics; and Cognitive approaches to grammar), and is therefore suitable for a range of different course types, both in terms of length and level, as well as in terms of focus. In addition to defining the field, the text also includes appropriate critical evaluation. Complementary and potentially competing approaches are explored both within the cognitive approach and beyond it. In particular, cognitive linguistics is compared and contrasted with formal approaches including Generative Grammar, formal approaches to semantics, and Relevance Theory.Features:*Exercises at the end of each chapter*Annotated reading list at the end of each chapter*Lively and accessible presentation *Full bibliography*Contains 200 diagrammatic illustrations

Language Diversity and Cognitive Representations

Author: Catherine Fuchs
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing
ISBN: 9789027223555
Release Date: 1999
Genre: Psychology

Significant new developments in brain activity research have revived the debate on the universality of language and its neural basis. Within this debate, the question of language diversity and its implications for cognition remains central and controversial. It is here investigated in an original multimodal approach, covering various aspects of cross-linguistic variation, differences between spoken, signed and drum languages, between normal speech and pathological speech, and also between language and music, as revealed in electric brain activity associated with language processing. The various contributions (linguistic, anthropological, psychological and neurophysical) on the nature and status of variation and invariants in language provides evidence for complex interactions between language-specific processes and general cognitive faculties. This overview of some recent trends in cognitive linguistics opens up a promising new research area in the humanities as well as in the cognitive sciences.

The Human Semantic Potential

Author: Terry Regier
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262181738
Release Date: 1996
Genre: Language Arts & Disciplines

"Regier's work makes a distinct and tangible contribution to the study of cognition and should be read by anyone interested in language acquisition in particular, and learning in general. This work brings about an impressive integration of ideas from cognitive linguistics, connectionism, and computer science in order to attack the problem of learning perceptually grounded semantics of spatial terms. The research reported in this book is an excellent example of interdisciplinary work." -- Lokendra Shastri, Member AI Group, International Computer Science Institute, Berkeley "Regier develops a structured connectionist model for acquiring spatial concepts that represents the epitome of cognitive science, integrating perspectives from linguistics, artificial intelligence, and psychology. This work further represents an excellent example of how a complex model should be analyzed to establish its core properties, implications, and limitations. Besides having considerable scientific merit, the book is highly engaging, frequently provocative, and beautifully written." -- Lawrence W. Barsalou, Professor of Psychology, University of Chicago Drawing on ideas from cognitive linguistics, connectionism, and perception, The Human Semantic Potential describes a connectionist model that learns perceptually grounded semantics for natural language in spatial terms. Languages differ in the ways in which they structure space, and Regier's aim is to have the model perform its learning task for terms from any natural language. The system has so far succeeded in learning spatial terms from English, German, Russian, Japanese, andMixtec. The model views simple movies of two-dimensional objects moving relative to one another and learns to classify them linguistically in accordance with the spatial system of some natural language. The overall goal is to determine which sorts of spatial configurations and events are learnable as the semantics for spatial terms and which are not. Ultimately, the model and its theoretical underpinnings are a step in the direction of articulating biologically based constraints on the nature of human semantic systems. Along the way Regier takes up such substantial issues as the attraction and the liabilities of PDP and structured connectionist modeling, the problem of learning without direct negative evidence, and the area of linguistic universals, which is addressed in the model itself. Trained on spatial terms from different languages, the model permits observations about the possible bases of linguistic universals and interlanguage variation. Neural Network Modeling and Connectionism series

Cognitive Science and the Social

Author: Stephen P. Turner
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781351180504
Release Date: 2018-03-09
Genre: Social Science

The rise of cognitive neuroscience is the most important scientific and intellectual development of the last thirty years. Findings pour forth, and major initiatives for brain research continue. The social sciences have responded to this development slowly--for good reasons. The implications of particular controversial findings, such as the discovery of mirror neurons, have been ambiguous, controversial within neuroscience itself, and difficult to integrate with conventional social science. Yet many of these findings, such as those of experimental neuro-economics, pose very direct challenges to standard social science. At the same time, however, the known facts of social science, for example about linguistic and moral diversity, pose a significant challenge to standard neuroscience approaches, which tend to focus on "universal" aspects of human and animal cognition. A serious encounter between cognitive neuroscience and social science is likely to be challenging, and transformative, for both parties. Although a literature has developed on proposals to integrate neuroscience and social science, these proposals go in divergent directions. None of them has a developed conception of social life. This book surveys these issues, introduces the basic alternative conceptions both of the mental world and the social world, and show how, with sufficient modification, they can be fit together in plausible ways. The book is not a "new theory " of anything, but rather an exploration of the critical issues that relate to the social aspects of cognition which expands the topic from the social neuroscience of immediate interpersonal interaction to the whole range of places where social variation interacts with the cognitive. The focus is on the conceptual problems produced by any attempt to take these issues seriously, and also on the new resources and considerations relevant to doing so. But it is also on the need for a revision of social theoretical concepts in order to utilize these resources. The book points to some conclusions, especially about how the process of what was known as socialization needs to be understood in cognitive science friendly terms. But there is no attempt to resolve the underlying issues within cognitive science, which will doubtless persist.

Words and the Mind

Author: Barbara Malt
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199718644
Release Date: 2010-03-01
Genre: Psychology

The study of word meanings promises important insights into the nature of the human mind by revealing what people find to be most cognitively significant in their experience. However, as we learn more about the semantics of various languages, we are faced with an interesting problem. Different languages seem to be telling us different stories about the mind. For example, important distinctions made in one language are not necessarily made in others. What are we to make of these cross-linguistic differences? How do they arise? Are they created by purely linguistic processes operating over the course of language evolution? Or do they reflect fundamental differences in thought? In this sea of differences, are there any semantic universals? Which categories might be given by the genes, which by culture, and which by language? And what might the cross-linguistic similarities and differences contribute to our understanding of conceptual and linguistic development? The kinds of mapping principles, structures, and processes that link language and non-linguistic knowledge must accommodate not just one language but the rich diversity that has been uncovered. The integration of knowledge and methodologies necessary for real progress in answering these questions has happened only recently, as experimental approaches have been applied to the cross-linguistic study of word meaning. In Words and the Mind, Barbara Malt and Phillip Wolff present evidence from the leading researchers who are carrying out this empirical work on topics as diverse as spatial relations, events, emotion terms, motion events, objects, body-part terms, causation, color categories, and relational categories. By bringing them together, Malt and Wolff highlight some of the most exciting cross-linguistic and cross-cultural work on the language-thought interface, from a broad array of fields including linguistics, anthropology, cognitive and developmental psychology, and cognitive neuropsychology. Their results provide some answers to these questions and new perspectives on the issues surrounding them.

Handbook of Categorization in Cognitive Science

Author: Henri Cohen
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780128097663
Release Date: 2017-06-03
Genre: Psychology

Handbook of Categorization in Cognitive Science, Second Edition presents the study of categories and the process of categorization as viewed through the lens of the founding disciplines of the cognitive sciences, and how the study of categorization has long been at the core of each of these disciplines. The literature on categorization reveals there is a plethora of definitions, theories, models and methods to apprehend this central object of study. The contributions in this handbook reflect this diversity. For example, the notion of category is not uniform across these contributions, and there are multiple definitions of the notion of concept. Furthermore, the study of category and categorization is approached differently within each discipline. For some authors, the categories themselves constitute the object of study, whereas for others, it is the process of categorization, and for others still, it is the technical manipulation of large chunks of information. Finally, yet another contrast has to do with the biological versus artificial nature of agents or categorizers. Defines notions of category and categorization Discusses the nature of categories: discrete, vague, or other Explores the modality effects on categories Bridges the category divide - calling attention to the bridges that have already been built, and avenues for further cross-fertilization between disciplines

Cognitive Science

Author: Benjamin Martin Bly
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080488501
Release Date: 1999-10-18
Genre: Computers

The interdisciplinary field of cognitive science brings together elements of cognitive psychology, mathematics, perception, and linguistics. Focusing on the main areas of exploration in this field today, Cognitive Science presents comprehensive overviews of research findings and discusses new cross-over areas of interest. Contributors represent the most senior and well-established names in the field. This volume serves as a high-level introduction, with sufficient breadth to be a graduate-level text, and enough depth to be a valued reference source to researchers.

Individual Differences in Language Ability and Language Behavior

Author: Charles J Fillmore
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9781483263205
Release Date: 2014-05-10
Genre: Language Arts & Disciplines

Individual Differences in Language Ability and Language Behavior is a collection of papers that discusses differences at the center of the study of language, specifically, on the various dimensions of linguistic ability and behavior along which individuals can differ from each other. Papers also review the development of techniques that measure these dimensions in relation to biological, psychological, and cultural parameters. Some papers review individual differences in language study in terms of different perspectives: that of a psychometrician's, of an individualistic's vantage point, and of a psycholinguistic's. Other papers discuss how each individual accesses, uses, and judges his language through fluency, biases, spatial principles, or a linguistic-phonetic mode. Several papers examine individual differences in language acquisition, such as "profile analysis," strategies in acquisition of sounds, second language learning, and duplication of adult language system. A group of papers addresses the biological aspects of language variation. These biological aspects include selective disorders of syntax (agrammatism), selective disorders of lexical retrieval (anomia), and cerebral lateralization effects in language processing. Certain papers explain individual differences in languages using sociolinguistic analysis. The collection is well suited for linguists, ethnologists, psychologists, and researchers whose works involve linguistics, learning, communications, and syntax.

Language Universals Markedness Theory and Natural Phonetic Processes

Author: Robert K. Herbert
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 9783110865936
Release Date: 1986-01-01
Genre: Language Arts & Disciplines

TRENDS IN LINGUISTICS is a series of books that open new perspectives in our understanding of language. The series publishes state-of-the-art work on core areas of linguistics across theoretical frameworks as well as studies that provide new insights by building bridges to neighbouring fields such as neuroscience and cognitive science. TRENDS IN LINGUISTICS considers itself a forum for cutting-edge research based on solid empirical data on language in its various manifestations, including sign languages. It regards linguistic variation in its synchronic and diachronic dimensions as well as in its social contexts as important sources of insight for a better understanding of the design of linguistic systems and the ecology and evolution of language. TRENDS IN LINGUISTICS publishes monographs and outstanding dissertations as well as edited volumes, which provide the opportunity to address controversial topics from different empirical and theoretical viewpoints. High quality standards are ensured through anonymous reviewing.

The Oxford Handbook of Chinese Psychology

Author: Michael Harris Bond
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 9780199541850
Release Date: 2010
Genre: Psychology

The Oxford Handbook of Chinese psychology is the first book of its kind - a comprehensive and commanding review of Chinese psychology, covering areas of human functioning with unparalleled sophistication and complexity. In 42 chapters, leading authorities cite and integrate both English and Chinese-language research in topic areas ranging from the socialization of children, mathematics achievement, emotion, bilingualism and Chinese styles of thinking to Chineseidentity, personal relationships, leadership processes and psychopathology. With all chapters accessibly written by the leading researchers in their respective fields, the reader of this volume will learn how and why China has developed in the way it has, and how it is likely to develop. In addition,the book shows how a better understanding of a culture so different to our own can tell us so much about our own culture and sense of identity.

Books in Print

Author: R.R. Bowker Company
Publisher:
ISBN: UOM:39015054035236
Release Date: 2003-09
Genre: American literature

Books in print is the major source of information on books currently published and in print in the United States. The database provides the record of forthcoming books, books in-print, and books out-of-print.