Knowledge and Reference in Empirical Science

Author: Jody Azzouni
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781134593439
Release Date: 2013-04-15
Genre: Philosophy

Knowledge and Reference in Empirical Science is a fascinating study of the bounds between science and language: in what sense, and of what, does science provide knowledge? Is science an instrument only distantly related to what's real? Can the language of science be used to adequately describe the truth? In this book, Jody Azziouni investigates the technology of science - the actual forging and exploiting of causal links, between ourselves and what we endeavor to know and understand.

Dewey s Empirical Theory of Knowledge and Reality

Author: John R. Shook
Publisher: Vanderbilt University Press
ISBN: 082651362X
Release Date: 2000
Genre: Philosophy

The ongoing revival of interest in the work of American philosopher and pragmatist John Dewey has given rise to a burgeoning flow of commentaries, critical editions, and reevaluations of Dewey's writings. While previous studies of Dewey's work have taken either a historical or a topical focus, Shook offers an innovative, organic approach to understanding Dewey and eloquently shows that Dewey's instrumentalism grew seamlessly out of his idealism. He argues that most current scholarship operates under a mistaken impression of Dewey's early philosophical positions and convincingly demonstrates a number of key points: that Dewey's metaphysical empiricism remained more indebted to Kant and Hegel than is commonly supposed; that Dewey owed more to the influence of Wundt than is commonly believed; that the influence of Peirce and James was not as significant for the development of Dewey's theories of mind and truth as has been argued in the past; and that Dewey's pragmatic theory of knowledge never really abandoned idealism. Shook's exposition of the unity of Dewey's thought challenges a large scholarly industry devoted to suppressing or explaining away the consistency between Dewey's early thought and his later work. In every respect, Dewey's Empirical Theory of Knowledge and Reality is a provocative and engaging study that will occupy a unique niche in this field. It is certain to stimulate discussion and controversy, forcing Dewey traditionalists out of habitual modes of thought and transforming our conventional understanding of the development of classical American philosophy.

Conjectures and Refutations

Author: Karl Popper
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781135971373
Release Date: 2014-05-01
Genre: Philosophy

Conjectures and Refutations is one of Karl Popper's most wide-ranging and popular works, notable not only for its acute insight into the way scientific knowledge grows, but also for applying those insights to politics and to history. It provides one of the clearest and most accessible statements of the fundamental idea that guided his work: not only our knowledge, but our aims and our standards, grow through an unending process of trial and error.

Education and the Education of Teachers International Library of the Philosophy of Education volume 18

Author: R.S. Peters
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781135170394
Release Date: 2010-02-25
Genre: Education

This collection of important and significant papers examines a wide range of issues. One of the author's main concerns is to clarify the meaning of 'education' and 'quality in education' - a phrase often used in public debate but seldom scrutinized. Long-standing ambiguities latent in the concept of 'liberal education' are also exposed, and Herbert Spencer's question 'What knowledge is of most worth?', vital in the light of the recent vast development of knowledge, is considered. The first section of the collection clarifies different aspects of the concept of education and to reflect upon the difficulties and dilemmas facing teachers who strive to educate their pupils as distinct from just preparing them for examinations. This section concludes with a constructive re-examination of Plato's conception of education with a view to seeing what is acceptable in it instead of just concentrating on what is manifestly unacceptable. The second section is concerned with the role of edcuational theory in the education of teachers.

Knowledge and the Curriculum International Library of the Philosophy of Education Volume 12

Author: Paul H. Hirst
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781135170813
Release Date: 2010-02-25
Genre: Education

The papers in this volume provide a coherent philosophical study of a group of important and pressing educational issues such as the selection of objectives for less able children, the fundamental characteristics of teaching and the integration of the curriculum. A thesis on the necessary differentiation of knowledge into logically distinct forms is outlined, and is defended against recent philosophical criticisms. Its implications for curriculum planning are examined, with particular reference to the urgent problems of adeqately characterizing liberal education and those forms of moral and religious education that are appropriate in maintained schools.

Empirical Knowledge

Author: Alan H. Goldman
Publisher:
ISBN: 0520076486
Release Date: 1991
Genre: Philosophy

"[Goldman's] theory of knowing is novel, powerful and yet fairly simple. His attack on skepticism is as persuasive and as well worked-out as any I know."--William Gregory Lycan, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill "In both conception and execution this is a fine book. . . . Goldman's treatment is fresh and invigorating."--Frederick Schmitt, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign "[Goldman's] theory of knowing is novel, powerful and yet fairly simple. His attack on skepticism is as persuasive and as well worked-out as any I know."--William Gregory Lycan, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Reason Without Freedom

Author: David Owens
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781134593293
Release Date: 2002-11
Genre: Philosophy

We call beliefs reasonable or unreasonable, justified or unjustified. What does this imply about belief? Does this imply that we are responsible for our beliefs and that we should be blamed for our unreasonable convictions? Or does it imply that we are in control of our beliefs and that what we believe is up to us? Reason Without Freedom argues that the major problems of epistemology have their roots in concerns about our control over and responsibility for belief. David Owens focuses on the arguments of Descartes, Locke and Hume - the founders of epistemology - and presents a critical discussion of the current trends in contemporary epistemology. He proposes that the problems we confront today - scepticism, the analysis of knowlege, and debates on epistemic justification - can be tackled only once we have understood the moral psychology of belief. This can be resolved when we realise that our responsibility for beliefs is profoundly different from our rationality and agency, and that memory and testimony can preserve justified belief without preserving the evidence which might be used to justify it. Reason Without Freedom should be of value to those interested in contemporary epistemology, philosophy of mind and action, ethics, and the history of 17th and 18th century.

Developing Nursing Knowledge

Author: Beth L. Rodgers
Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
ISBN: 0781747082
Release Date: 2005
Genre: Medical

This text offers a comprehensive discussion of philosophies that are relevant to the conceptualization and development of the knowledge base and discipline of nursing. Coverage progresses from classical philosophy to the rationalism of Descartes, the roots of modern science in British empiricism, the evolution of modern science, and the concept of interpretive inquiry. Also included are chapters on the knowledge-practice connection and models for nursing knowledge development. This book explores how philosophy shapes aspects of nursing and provides students with a much richer and fuller understanding of how nursing works, how it can be approached most effectively, and how it might be shaped to advance in the future.

The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

Author: Thomas S. Kuhn
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226458144
Release Date: 2012-04-18
Genre: Science

A good book may have the power to change the way we see the world, but a great book actually becomes part of our daily consciousness, pervading our thinking to the point that we take it for granted, and we forget how provocative and challenging its ideas once were—and still are. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is that kind of book. When it was first published in 1962, it was a landmark event in the history and philosophy of science. Fifty years later, it still has many lessons to teach. With The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Kuhn challenged long-standing linear notions of scientific progress, arguing that transformative ideas don’t arise from the day-to-day, gradual process of experimentation and data accumulation but that the revolutions in science, those breakthrough moments that disrupt accepted thinking and offer unanticipated ideas, occur outside of “normal science,” as he called it. Though Kuhn was writing when physics ruled the sciences, his ideas on how scientific revolutions bring order to the anomalies that amass over time in research experiments are still instructive in our biotech age. This new edition of Kuhn’s essential work in the history of science includes an insightful introduction by Ian Hacking, which clarifies terms popularized by Kuhn, including paradigm and incommensurability, and applies Kuhn’s ideas to the science of today. Usefully keyed to the separate sections of the book, Hacking’s introduction provides important background information as well as a contemporary context. Newly designed, with an expanded index, this edition will be eagerly welcomed by the next generation of readers seeking to understand the history of our perspectives on science.

Books in Print

Author: R.R. Bowker Company
Publisher:
ISBN: UOM:39015054035236
Release Date: 2003-09
Genre: American literature

Books in print is the major source of information on books currently published and in print in the United States. The database provides the record of forthcoming books, books in-print, and books out-of-print.

General Philosophy of Science Focal Issues

Author:
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080548547
Release Date: 2007-07-18
Genre: Philosophy

Scientists use concepts and principles that are partly specific for their subject matter, but they also share part of them with colleagues working in different fields. Compare the biological notion of a 'natural kind' with the general notion of 'confirmation' of a hypothesis by certain evidence. Or compare the physical principle of the 'conservation of energy' and the general principle of 'the unity of science'. Scientists agree that all such notions and principles aren't as crystal clear as one might wish. An important task of the philosophy of the special sciences, such as philosophy of physics, of biology and of economics, to mention only a few of the many flourishing examples, is the clarification of such subject specific concepts and principles. Similarly, an important task of 'general' philosophy of science is the clarification of concepts like 'confirmation' and principles like 'the unity of science'. It is evident that clarfication of concepts and principles only makes sense if one tries to do justice, as much as possible, to the actual use of these notions by scientists, without however following this use slavishly. That is, occasionally a philosopher may have good reasons for suggesting to scientists that they should deviate from a standard use. Frequently, this amounts to a plea for differentiation in order to stop debates at cross-purposes due to the conflation of different meanings. While the special volumes of the series of Handbooks of the Philosophy of Science address topics relative to a specific discipline, this general volume deals with focal issues of a general nature. After an editorial introduction about the dominant method of clarifying concepts and principles in philosophy of science, called explication, the first five chapters deal with the following subjects. Laws, theories, and research programs as units of empirical knowledge (Theo Kuipers), various past and contemporary perspectives on explanation (Stathis Psillos), the evaluation of theories in terms of their virtues (Ilkka Niiniluto), and the role of experiments in the natural sciences, notably physics and biology (Allan Franklin), and their role in the social sciences, notably economics (Wenceslao Gonzalez). In the subsequent three chapters there is even more attention to various positions and methods that philosophers of science and scientists may favor: ontological, epistemological, and methodological positions (James Ladyman), reduction, integration, and the unity of science as aims in the sciences and the humanities (William Bechtel and Andrew Hamilton), and logical, historical and computational approaches to the philosophy of science (Atocha Aliseda and Donald Gillies). The volume concludes with the much debated question of demarcating science from nonscience (Martin Mahner) and the rich European-American history of the philosophy of science in the 20th century (Friedrich Stadler). Comprehensive coverage of the philosophy of science written by leading philosophers in this field Clear style of writing for an interdisciplinary audience No specific pre-knowledge required