Higher Education for Women in Postwar America 1945 1965

Author: Linda Eisenmann
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 9780801888892
Release Date: 2010-03-24
Genre: Education

This history explores the nature of postwar advocacy for women's higher education, acknowledging its unique relationship to the expectations of the era and recognizing its particular type of adaptive activism. Linda Eisenmann illuminates the impact of this advocacy in the postwar era, identifying a link between women's activism during World War II and the women's movement of the late 1960s. Though the postwar period has been portrayed as an era of domestic retreat for women, Eisenmann finds otherwise as she explores areas of institution building and gender awareness. In an era uncomfortable with feminism, this generation advocated individual decision making rather than collective action by professional women, generally conceding their complicated responsibilities as wives and mothers. By redefining our understanding of activism and assessing women's efforts within the context of their milieu, this innovative work reclaims an era often denigrated for its lack of attention to women. -- Susan Ware

Universities and Their Cities

Author: Steven J. Diner
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 9781421422411
Release Date: 2017-04-05
Genre: Business & Economics

Today, a majority of American college students attend school in cities. But throughout the nineteenth and much of the twentieth centuries, urban colleges and universities faced deep hostility from writers, intellectuals, government officials, and educators who were concerned about the impact of cities, immigrants, and commuter students on college education. In Universities and Their Cities, Steven J. Diner explores the roots of American colleges’ traditional rural bias. Why were so many people, including professors, uncomfortable with nonresident students? How were the missions and activities of urban universities influenced by their cities? And how, improbably, did much-maligned urban universities go on to profoundly shape contemporary higher education across the nation? Surveying American higher education from the early nineteenth century to the present, Diner examines the various ways in which universities responded to the challenges offered by cities. In the years before World War II, municipal institutions struggled to "build character" in working class and immigrant students. In the postwar era, universities in cities grappled with massive expansion in enrollment, issues of racial equity, the problems of "disadvantaged" students, and the role of higher education in addressing the "urban crisis." Over the course of the twentieth century, urban higher education institutions greatly increased the use of the city for teaching, scholarly research on urban issues, and inculcating civic responsibility in students. In the final decades of the century, and moving into the twenty-first century, university location in urban areas became increasingly popular with both city-dwelling students and prospective resident students, altering the long tradition of anti-urbanism in American higher education. Drawing on the archives and publications of higher education organizations and foundations, Universities and Their Cities argues that city universities brought about today’s commitment to universal college access by reaching out to marginalized populations. Diner shows how these institutions pioneered the development of professional schools and PhD programs. Finally, he considers how leaders of urban higher education continuously debated the definition and role of an urban university. Ultimately, this book is a considered and long overdue look at the symbiotic impact of these two great American institutions: the city and the university.

For the Common Good

Author: Charles Dorn
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 9781501712609
Release Date: 2017-05-15
Genre: Education

Are colleges and universities in a period of unprecedented disruption? Is a bachelor's degree still worth the investment? Are the humanities coming to an end? What, exactly, is higher education good for? In For the Common Good, Charles Dorn challenges the rhetoric of America’s so-called crisis in higher education by investigating two centuries of college and university history. From the community college to the elite research university—in states from California to Maine—Dorn engages a fundamental question confronted by higher education institutions ever since the nation’s founding: Do colleges and universities contribute to the common good? Tracking changes in the prevailing social ethos between the late eighteenth and early twenty-first centuries, Dorn illustrates the ways in which civic-mindedness, practicality, commercialism, and affluence influenced higher education’s dedication to the public good. Each ethos, long a part of American history and tradition, came to predominate over the others during one of the four chronological periods examined in the book, informing the character of institutional debates and telling the definitive story of its time. For the Common Good demonstrates how two hundred years of political, economic, and social change prompted transformation among colleges and universities—including the establishment of entirely new kinds of institutions—and refashioned higher education in the United States over time in essential and often vibrant ways.

Envisioning Black Colleges

Author: Marybeth Gasman
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 9780801891854
Release Date: 2009-05-01
Genre: Education

Etched into America's consciousness is the United Negro College Fund's phrase "A mind is a terrible thing to waste." This book tells the multifaceted story of the organization's efforts on behalf of black colleges against the backdrop of the cold war and the civil rights movement. Founded during the post–World War II period as a successor to white philanthropic efforts, the UNCF nevertheless retained vestiges of outside control. In its early years, the organization was restrained in its critique of segregation and reluctant to lodge a challenge against institutional and cultural racism. Through cogent analysis of written and oral histories, archival documents, and the group's outreach and advertising campaigns, historian Marybeth Gasman examines the UNCF’s struggle to create an identity apart from white benefactors and to evolve into a vehicle for black empowerment. The first history of the UNCF, Envisioning Black Colleges draws attention to the significance of black colleges in higher education and the role they played in Americans’ struggle for equality. -- Philo A. Hutcheson

Houses for a New World

Author: Barbara Miller Lane
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691167619
Release Date: 2015-10-06
Genre: Architecture

While the work of Frank Lloyd Wright, Richard Neutra, and their contemporaries frequently influences our ideas about house design at the midcentury, most Americans during this period lived in homes built by little-known builders who also served as developers of the communities. Often dismissed as “little boxes, made of ticky-tacky,” the tract houses of America’s postwar suburbs represent the twentieth century’s most successful experiment in mass housing. Houses for a New World is the first comprehensive history of this uniquely American form of domestic architecture and urbanism. Between 1945 and 1965, more than thirteen million houses—most of them in new ranch and split-level styles—were constructed on large expanses of land outside city centers, providing homes for the country’s rapidly expanding population. Focusing on twelve developments in the suburbs of Boston, Philadelphia, Chicago, and Los Angeles, Barbara Miller Lane tells the story of the collaborations between builders and buyers, showing how both wanted houses and communities that espoused a modern way of life—informal, democratic, multiethnic, and devoted to improving the lives of their children. The resulting houses differed dramatically from both the European International Style and older forms of American domestic architecture. Based on a decade of original research, and accompanied by hundreds of historical images, plans, and maps, this book presents an entirely new interpretation of the American suburb. The result is a fascinating history of houses and developments that continue to shape how tens of millions of Americans live. Featured housing developments in Houses for a New World: Boston area: Governor Francis Farms (Warwick, RI) Wethersfield (Natick, MA) Brookfield (Brockton, MA) Chicago area: Greenview Estates (Arlington Heights, IL) Elk Grove Village Rolling Meadows Weathersfield at Schaumburg Los Angeles and Orange County area: Cinderella Homes (Anaheim, CA) Panorama City (Los Angeles) Rossmoor (Los Alamitos, CA) Philadelphia area: Lawrence Park (Broomall, PA) Rose Tree Woods (Broomall, PA)

A Consumers Republic

Author: Lizabeth Cohen
Publisher: Vintage
ISBN: 9780307555366
Release Date: 2008-12-24
Genre: History

In this signal work of history, Bancroft Prize winner and Pulitzer Prize finalist Lizabeth Cohen shows how the pursuit of prosperity after World War II fueled our pervasive consumer mentality and transformed American life. Trumpeted as a means to promote the general welfare, mass consumption quickly outgrew its economic objectives and became synonymous with patriotism, social equality, and the American Dream. Material goods came to embody the promise of America, and the power of consumers to purchase everything from vacuum cleaners to convertibles gave rise to the power of citizens to purchase political influence and effect social change. Yet despite undeniable successes and unprecedented affluence, mass consumption also fostered economic inequality and the fracturing of society along gender, class, and racial lines. In charting the complex legacy of our “Consumers’ Republic” Lizabeth Cohen has written a bold, encompassing, and profoundly influential book. From the Trade Paperback edition.

When Women Ask the Questions

Author: Marilyn Jacoby Boxer
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 0801868114
Release Date: 2001-08-30
Genre: Education

"An enlightening examination of the political, social, intellectual, and cultural debates that initiated and informed the institutionalization of women's studies scholarship and programs in American higher education." -- Journal of American History

American Higher Education in the Postwar Era 1945 1970

Author: Roger L. Geiger
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781351597722
Release Date: 2017-09-01
Genre: Education

After World War II, returning veterans with GI Bill benefits ushered in an era of unprecedented growth that fundamentally altered the meaning, purpose, and structure of higher education. This volume explores the multifaceted and tumultuous transformation of American higher education that occurred between 1945 and 1970, while examining the changes in institutional forms, curricula, clientele, faculty, and governance. A wide range of well-known contributors cover topics such as the first public university to explicitly serve an urban population, the creation of modern day honors programs, how teachers’ colleges were repurposed as state colleges, the origins of faculty unionism and collective bargaining, and the dramatic student protests that forever changed higher education. This engaging text explores a critical moment in the history of higher education, signaling a shift in the meaning of a college education, the concept of who should and who could obtain access to college, and what should be taught.

Citizens By Degree

Author: Deondra Rose
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780190650964
Release Date: 2018-01-19
Genre: Social Science

Since the mid-twentieth century, the United States has seen a striking shift in the gender dynamics of higher educational attainment as women have come to earn college degrees at higher rates than men. Women have also made significant strides in terms of socioeconomic status and political engagement. What explains the progress that American women have made since the 1960s? While many point to the feminist movement as the critical turning point, this book makes the case that women's movement toward first class citizenship has been shaped not only by important societal changes, but also by the actions of lawmakers who used a combination of redistributive and regulatory higher education policies to enhance women's incorporation into their roles as American citizens. Examining the development and impact of the National Defense Education Act of 1958, the Higher Education Act of 1965, and Title IX of the 1972 Education Amendments, this book argues that higher education policies represent a crucial-though largely overlooked-factor shaping the progress that women have made. By significantly expanding women's access to college, they helped to pave the way for women to surpass men as the recipients of bachelor's degrees, while also empowering them to become more economically independent, socially integrated, politically engaged members of the American citizenry. In addition to helping to bring into greater focus our understanding of how Southern Democrats shaped U.S. social policy development during the mid-twentieth century, this analysis recognizes federal higher education policy as an indispensible component of the American welfare state.

The Feminine Mystique 50th Anniversary Edition

Author: Betty Friedan
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
ISBN: 9780393239188
Release Date: 2013-02-11
Genre: Social Science

“If you’ve never read it, read it now.”—Arianna Huffington, O, The Oprah Magazine Landmark, groundbreaking, classic—these adjectives barely do justice to the pioneering vision and lasting impact of The Feminine Mystique. Published in 1963, it gave a pitch-perfect description of “the problem that has no name”: the insidious beliefs and institutions that undermined women’s confidence in their intellectual capabilities and kept them in the home. Writing in a time when the average woman first married in her teens and 60 percent of women students dropped out of college to marry, Betty Friedan captured the frustrations and thwarted ambitions of a generation and showed women how they could reclaim their lives. Part social chronicle, part manifesto, The Feminine Mystique is filled with fascinating anecdotes and interviews as well as insights that continue to inspire. This 50th–anniversary edition features an afterword by best-selling author Anna Quindlen as well as a new introduction by Gail Collins.

Black Collegians Experiences in US Northern Private Colleges

Author: Dafina-Lazarus Stewart
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
ISBN: 1137590769
Release Date: 2017-03-24
Genre: Education

This book is a narrative study of the lives and experiences of sixty-eight Black collegians in a set of northern private colleges in the Midwest between 1945 and 1965. Through oral histories and archival material, this text documents and reflects on their experiences in the racially isolated, northern, rural towns in Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, and Western Pennsylvania. This history illuminates both the empowerment of these collegians and the persistent challenges of enacting institutional values in the face of resistance from both outside and within. Stewart seeks to understand the nature of progress toward pluralistic diversity in college environments characterized by the paradox of racial homogeneity and interracial engagement. In this way, the complex interplay of social movements, institutional context, individual identities, and the experiences of marginalized students in postsecondary education are more effectively demonstrated.

Grand Expectations

Author: James T. Patterson
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 9780195076806
Release Date: 1996
Genre: History

Interweaving key cultural, economic, social, and political events, a history of the United States in the post-World War II era ranges from 1945, through a turbulent period of economic growth and social upheaval, to Watergate and Nixon's 1974 resignation

A House Divided

Author: Anne M. Wagner
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 9780520268470
Release Date: 2012-02-14
Genre: Art

“In this much-needed and courageous book, Anne Wagner lays down a gauntlet to all those interested in modern and contemporary art: to think anew about these works by canonic artists, and about the relationship of art to recent history and politics. Wagner presents an exhilarating and innovative set of closely worked historical arguments that are remarkably timely, and her lucid prose makes complex ideas and critical debates accessible to a broad audience.”—Briony Fer, Professor of History of Art, UCL “In A House Divided, Anne Wagner takes on the so-called post-war era in American art and asks searching questions about what that term might mean now, amid cultural division and perpetual war. Far more than a sum of its parts, this collection of essays is essential reading on American artists' ‘post-war’ responses to nationalism, state violence, and the 1960s.”—Mignon Nixon, author of Fantastic Reality: Louise Bourgeois and a Story of Modern Art