Four Decades of Scientific Explanation

Author: Wesley C. Salmon
Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Press
ISBN: 9780822973027
Release Date: 2006-06-15
Genre: Philosophy

As Aristotle stated, scientific explanation is based on deductive argument--yet, Wesley C. Salmon points out, not all deductive arguments are qualified explanations. The validity of the explanation must itself be examined. Four Decades of Scientific Explanation provides a comprehensive account of the developments in scientific explanation that transpired in the last four decades of the twentieth century. It continues to stand as the most comprehensive treatment of the writings on the subject during these years. Building on the historic 1948 essay by Carl G. Hempel and Paul Oppenheim, "Studies in the Logic of Explanation,” which introduced the deductive-nomological (D-N) model on which most work on scientific explanation was based for the following four decades, Salmon goes beyond this model's inherent basis of describing empirical knowledge to tells us “not only what, but also why.” Salmon examines the predominant models in chronological order and describes their development, refinement, and criticism or rejection. Four Decades of Scientific Explanation underscores the need for a consensus of approach and ongoing evaluations of methodology in scientific explanation, with the goal of providing a better understanding of natural phenomena.

Scientific Explanation

Author: Philip Kitcher
Publisher: U of Minnesota Press
ISBN: 9780816657650
Release Date: 1962-05
Genre: Science

Scientific Explanation was first published in 1962. Minnesota Archive Editions uses digital technology to make long-unavailable books once again accessible, and are published unaltered from the original University of Minnesota Press editions. Is a new consensus emerging in the philosophy of science? The nine distinguished contributors to this volume apply that question to the realm of scientific explanation and, although their conclusions vary, they agree in one respect: there definitely was an old consensus. Co-editor Wesley Salmon's opening essay, "Four Decades of Scientific Explanation," grounds the entire discussion. His point of departure is the founding document of the old consensus: a 1948 paper by Carl G. Hempel and Paul Oppenheim, "Studies in the Logic of Explanation," that set forth, with remarkable clarity, a mode of argument that came to be known as the deductive-nomological model. This approach, holding that explanation dies not move beyond the sphere of empirical knowledge, remained dominant during the hegemony of logical empiricism from 1950 to 1975. Salmon traces in detail the rise and breakup of the old consensus, and examines the degree to which there is, if not a new consensus, at least a kind of reconciliation on this issue among contemporary philosophers of science and clear agreement that science can indeed tell us why. The other contributors, in the order of their presentations, are: Peter Railton, Matti Sintonen, Paul W. Humphreys, David Papineau, Nancy Cartwright, James Woodward, Merrilee H. Salmon, and Philip Kitcher.

Statistical Explanation and Statistical Relevance

Author: Wesley C. Salmon
Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Pre
ISBN: 9780822974116
Release Date: 1971-09-15
Genre: Philosophy

According to modern physics, many objectively improbable events actually occur, such as the spontaneous disintegration of radioactive atoms. Because of high levels of improbability, scientists are often at a loss to explain such phenomena. In this main essay of this book, Wesley Salmon offers a solution to scientific explanation based on the concept of statistical relevance (the S-R model). In this vein, the other two essays herein discuss “Statistical Relevance vs. Statistical Inference,” and “Explanation and Information.”

The Foundations of Scientific Inference

Author: Wesley C. Salmon
Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Press
ISBN: 9780822982944
Release Date: 2017-07-14
Genre: Science

After its publication in 1967, The Foundations of Scientific Inference taught a generation of students and researchers about the problem of induction, the interpretation of probability, and confirmation theory. Fifty years later, Wesley C. Salmon’s book remains one of the clearest introductions to these fundamental problems in the philosophy of science. With The Foundations of Scientific Inference, Salmon presented a coherent vision of the nature of scientific reasoning, explored the philosophical underpinnings of scientific investigation, and introduced readers to key movements in epistemology and to leading philosophers of the twentieth century—such as Karl Popper, Rudolf Carnap, and Hans Reichenbach—offering a critical assessment and developing his own distinctive views on topics that are still of central importance today. This anniversary edition of Salmon’s foundational work in the philosophy of science features a detailed introduction by Christopher Hitchcock, which examines the book’s origins, influences, and major themes, its impact and enduring effects, the disputes it raised, and its place in current studies, revisiting Salmon’s ideas for a new audience of philosophers, historians, scientists, and students.

Das geheime Leben der B ume

Author: Peter Wohlleben
Publisher: Ludwig
ISBN: 9783641114008
Release Date: 2015-05-25
Genre: Nature

Ein neuer Blick auf alte Freunde Erstaunliche Dinge geschehen im Wald: Bäume, die miteinander kommunizieren. Bäume, die ihren Nachwuchs, aber auch alte und kranke Nachbarn liebevoll umsorgen und pflegen. Bäume, die Empfindungen haben, Gefühle, ein Gedächtnis. Unglaublich? Aber wahr! – Der Förster Peter Wohlleben erzählt faszinierende Geschichten über die ungeahnten und höchst erstaunlichen Fähigkeiten der Bäume. Dazu zieht er die neuesten wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnisse ebenso heran wie seine eigenen unmittelbaren Erfahrungen mit dem Wald und schafft so eine aufregend neue Begegnung für die Leser: Wir schließen Bekanntschaft mit einem Lebewesen, das uns vertraut schien, uns aber hier erstmals in seiner ganzen Lebendigkeit vor Augen tritt. Und wir betreten eine völlig neue Welt ...

Die Vierte Industrielle Revolution

Author: Klaus Schwab
Publisher: Pantheon Verlag
ISBN: 9783641203177
Release Date: 2016-06-27
Genre: Business & Economics

Die größte Herausforderung unserer Zeit Ob selbstfahrende Autos, 3-D-Drucker oder Künstliche Intelligenz: Aktuelle technische Entwicklungen werden unsere Art zu leben und zu arbeiten grundlegend verändern. Die Vierte Industrielle Revolution hat bereits begonnen. Ihr Merkmal ist die ungeheuer schnelle und systematische Verschmelzung von Technologien, die die Grenzen zwischen der physischen, der digitalen und der biologischen Welt immer stärker durchbrechen. Wie kein anderer ist Klaus Schwab, der Vorsitzende des Weltwirtschaftsforums, in der Lage aufzuzeigen, welche politischen, wirtschaftlichen, sozialen und kulturellen Herausforderungen diese Revolution für uns alle mit sich bringt.

Hidden Figures Unerkannte Heldinnen

Author: Margot Lee Shetterly
Publisher: HarperCollins
ISBN: 9783959676434
Release Date: 2017-01-02
Genre: History

1943 stellt das Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory der NACA,die später zur NASA wird, erstmalig afroamerikanische Frauen ein. "Menschliche Rechner" - unter ihnen Dorothy Vaughan, die 1953 Vorgesetzte der brillanten afroamerikanischen Mathematikerin Katherine Johnson wird. Trotz Diskriminierung und Vorurteilen, treiben sie die Forschungen der NASA voran und Katherine Johnsons Berechnungen werden maßgeblich für den Erfolg der Apollo-Missionen. Dies ist ihre Geschichte. "Mit dieser unglaublich mitreißenden und vielschichtigen Erzählung zeigt Shetterly ihr Können. Die Geschichte begeistert in allen Aspekten." Booklist

Der neue Minuten Manager

Author: Kenneth Blanchard
Publisher: Rowohlt Verlag GmbH
ISBN: 9783644570412
Release Date: 2016-03-11
Genre: Business & Economics

Die Vermittlung der Kunst, bei Managern und Mitarbeitern Selbständigkeit und Eigenverantwortung zu entwickeln, hat den Minuten Manager zu einem Welterfolg gemacht. Hier ist der neue Minuten Manager, die überarbeitete Neuausgabe für den Manager von heute. Kenneth Blanchard und Spencer Johnson, jeder für sich eine Legende der Unternehmer-Beratung, haben die bewährten Rezepte, wie man sich sinnvoll Ziele setzt und die Arbeit der Mitarbeiter erfolgreich begleitet, um neue und zusätzliche Erfahrungen und Geheimrezepte modernen Managements bereichert und in ein zeitgemäßes Gewand gekleidet.

Laws And Explanation In The Social Sciences

Author: Lee C Mcintyre
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9780429978920
Release Date: 2018-01-31
Genre: Social Science

The first full-length defense of social scientific laws to appear in the last twenty years, this book upholds the prospect of the nomological explanation of human behavior against those who maintain that this approach is impossible, impractical, or irrelevant. By pursuing an analogy with the natural sciences, McIntyre shows that the barriers to nomological inquiry within the social sciences are not generated by factors unique to social inquiry, but arise from a largely common set of problems that face any scientific endeavor.All of the most widely supported arguments against social scientific laws have failed largely due to adherence to a highly idealized conception of nomologicality (allegedly drawn from the natural sciences themselves) and the limited doctrine of ?descriptivism.? Basing his arguments upon a more realistic view of scientific theorizing that emphasizes the pivotal role of ?redescription? in aiding the search for scientific laws, McIntyre is optimistic about attaining useful law-like explanations of human behavior.

Blick in die Ewigkeit

Author: Eben Alexander
Publisher: Integral
ISBN: 9783641095918
Release Date: 2013-03-04
Genre: Body, Mind & Spirit

Eine spektakuläre Reise in das Leben nach dem Tod Was geschieht, wenn wir sterben? Gibt es ein Leben nach dem Tod? Fragen, die jeden Menschen berühren und die in diesem Buch auf revolutionäre Weise neu beantwortet werden. Mit 54 Jahren erkrankt der renommierte Neurochirurg und Harvard-Dozent Eben Alexander an einer extrem seltenen Form der Hirnhautentzündung. Er fällt ins Koma. Die Ärzte stellen fest, dass sein Gehirn irreparabel geschädigt ist, und prognostizieren sein baldiges Ende. Doch Eben Alexander kehrt ins Leben zurück – und gesundet innerhalb kurzer Zeit. Minutiös berichtet der Gehirnforscher, was er während des Komas durchlebte: Begleitet von einem Engelwesen taucht er ein in eine Welt ohne Zeit und Raum, in der sich ihm die göttliche Quelle allen Seins offenbart. Hier erfährt er: Wir alle sind Teil eines universalen, unsterblichen Bewusstseins.

Explanation Beyond Causation

Author: Alexander Reutlinger
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780191083808
Release Date: 2018-05-31
Genre: Science

Explanations are important to us in many contexts: in science, mathematics, philosophy, and also in everyday and juridical contexts. But what is an explanation? In the philosophical study of explanation, there is long-standing, influential tradition that links explanation intimately to causation: we often explain by providing accurate information about the causes of the phenomenon to be explained. Such causal accounts have been the received view of the nature of explanation, particularly in philosophy of science, since the 1980s. However, philosophers have recently begun to break with this causal tradition by shifting their focus to kinds of explanation that do not turn on causal information. The increasing recognition of the importance of such non-causal explanations in the sciences and elsewhere raises pressing questions for philosophers of explanation. What is the nature of non-causal explanations - and which theory best captures it? How do non-causal explanations relate to causal ones? How are non-causal explanations in the sciences related to those in mathematics and metaphysics? This volume of new essays explores answers to these and other questions at the heart of contemporary philosophy of explanation. The essays address these questions from a variety of perspectives, including general accounts of non-causal and causal explanations, as well as a wide range of detailed case studies of non-causal explanations from the sciences, mathematics, and metaphysics.