Fallen Soldiers

Author: George L. Mosse
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0195071395
Release Date: 1991-12-12
Genre: History

Analyzes the myth of the war experience--the mind-set that overlooked the carnage and brutality of the two world wars and justified the conflicts

Die Kultur der Niederlage

Author: Wolfgang Schivelbusch
Publisher: Rowohlt Verlag GmbH
ISBN: 9783644018617
Release Date: 2012-05-02
Genre: History

Zehn Jahre nach dem letzten großen Zusammenbruch, dem des sowjetischen Imperiums, scheint die Zeit reif für eine Reihe historischer Fragen. Destilliert aus der Geschichte der drei Niederlagenklassiker – des amerikanischen Südens nach 1865, Frankreichs nach 1871 und Deutschlands nach 1918 –, lassen sie sich etwa so formulieren: Wie wurden im Zeitalter der Erlöserideologie des Nationalsozialismus große Zusammenbrüche erlebt? Welche Mythen von Verrat oder Heroisierung bildeten sich dabei? Und welcher Zusammenhang besteht zwischen dem äußeren Unterliegen und jenen inneren Revolutionen, die der verlorene Krieg überall zur Folge hat? Wolfgang Schivelbusch ist diesen Fragen nachgegangen, und er zeichnet die aus tiefer Demütigung kommenden Energieschübe nach, die Niederlagen bringen. So legten sich die amerikanischen Südstaaten nach dem Bürgerkrieg erfolgreich ein legendenhaftes Images zu, das unter anderem «Vom Winde verweht» und seine Plantagenromantik schuf; so kam es in Frankreich nach 1871 zu umfassenden politischen und kulturellen Neuerungen; so brach das Deutsche Reich, nachdem der Erste Weltkrieg verloren war, auf etlichen Feldern in eine kraftvolle Moderne auf. Schivelbuschs Buch wird Staub aufwirbeln, auch weil es voller aktueller Bezugspunkte ist. Und es verweist auf die eigentümliche Stärke der Besiegten: daß sie früher und besser wissen, was die Stunde geschlagen hat.

Am Anfang war Gewalt

Author: Mark Jones
Publisher: Ullstein Buchverlage
ISBN: 9783843715478
Release Date: 2017-05-12
Genre: History

Der Historiker Mark Jones schildert die dramatische Gründungsphase der Weimarer Republik erstmals als eine Geschichte der Gewalt. Er zeigt, wie eine anfangs friedliche Revolution in einer Reihe von Tabubrüchen endet, einschließlich des Mordes an Frauen und Kindern durch Soldaten der sozialdemokratisch geführten Regierung. Diese Erfahrung wurde für das weitere Schicksal Deutschlands prägend – bis hin zur entfesselten Gewalt des NS-Regimes. Anhand neu erschlossener Archivquellen, darunter zahlreiche Berichte von Zeitzeugen, führt Mark Jones den Leser an die Orte der staatlich legitimierten und ausgelösten Gewaltexzesse dieser Zeit und lässt die Stimmen der Täter, ihrer Opfer und deren Familien lebendig werden. »Mark Jones‘ exzellent geschriebenes Buch wirft einen neuen Blick auf die deutsche Revolution von 1918/19.« Sönke Neitzel »Am Anfang war Gewalt ist das Werk eines der meistversprechenden Historikers der jüngeren deutschen Vergangenheit. Es stützt sich auf akribische archivalische Forschung und fügt unserem Verständnis von der Geburt der deutschen Demokratie ein wichtiges Korrektiv hinzu. Zugleich ist das Buch eine Herausforderung für die Historiker, die sich traditionell meist auf die hohe Politik konzentrieren. Denn es eröffnet uns neue Fragestellungen zur Geschichte Deutschlands in der schicksalhaften ersten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts.« Robert Gerwarth, University College Dublin »Eine bemerkenswerte Darstellung der deutschen Revolution von 1918/19 (…) Mark Jones gelingt es, die militärische und politische Geschichte mit der Gesellschafts- und Kulturgeschichte zu verbinden. Ein Buch, das eine breite Leserschaft verdient.« Peter C. Caldwell, Rice University (USA) »Es gibt gute Gründe, anzunehmen, dass dieses Buch einmal als ein Wendepunkt in der Art und Weise eingestuft werden wird, wie die Historiker die revolutionären Umwälzungen und die politische Gewalt erklären, die am Ende des Ersten Weltkrieges den europäischen Kontinent erschütterten (...) Originell und gut geschrieben, ist Am Anfang war Gewalt eine innovative, faszinierende und überzeugende Analyse der Gewalt in der deutschen Revolution von 1918/19. Man kann Mark Jones zu diesem neuen und provokativen Beitrag nur gratulieren.« Ángel Alcalde, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München »Ein gründlich recherchiertes und intelligent argumentierendes Buch. Mark Jones verdient Anerkennung für diesen unser Verständnis der deutschen Revolution von 1918/19 bereichernden Beitrag (...) In gewisser Weise kommt seine Darstellung der heute als klassisch geltenden Sichtweise nahe, die Mehrheitssozialdemokraten hätten aus überzogenen Ängsten vor dem Bolschewismus heraus auf die revolutionäre Unruhe überreagiert (...) Doch statt diese Ängste von oben herab verurteilen, macht Jones sich die Mühe, ihre Entstehung und ihre Wechselwirkungen mit den Ereignissen auf der Straße zu analysieren.« Moritz Föllmer, University of Amsterdam

Studies in Contemporary Jewry IX Modern Jews and Their Musical Agendas

Author: Ezra Mendelsohn
Publisher: OUP USA
ISBN: 9780195086171
Release Date: 1993
Genre: History

This volume examines music's place in the process of Jewish assimilation into the modern European bourgeoisie and the role assigned to music in forging a new Jewish Israeli national identity, in maintaining a separate Sephardic identity, and in preserving a traditional Jewish life. Contributions include "On the Jewish Presence in Nineteenth Century European Musical Life," by Ezra Mendelsohn, "Musical Life in the Central European Jewish Village," by Philip V. Bohlman, "Jews and Hungarians in Modern Hungarian Musical Culture," by Judit Frigyesi, "New Directions in the Music of the Sephardic Jews," by Edwin Seroussi, "The Eretz Israeli Song and the Jewish National Fund," by Natan Shahar, "Alexander U. Boskovitch and the Quest for an Israeli Musical Style," by Jehoash Hirshberg, and "Music of Holy Argument," by Lionel Wolberger. The volume also contains essays, book reviews, and a list of recent dissertations in the field.

Soldaten im Nachkrieg

Author: Jörg Echternkamp
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 9783110411393
Release Date: 2014-10-14
Genre: History

Wie prägte der Zweite Weltkrieg das Verhältnis der Westdeutschen zum Militär in der formativen Phase der Bundesrepublik? Jörg Echternkamp nutzt das heuristische Instrument der "kollektiven Repräsentationen" (Chartier), um drei Themenkomplexe zu analysieren: die Deutungen des Krieges in seiner Endphase und in der Besatzungszeit, die Selbstbilder soldatischer Erfahrungsgemeinschaften sowie die Neuerfindung der bundesdeutschen Streitkräfte. Indem sie die Zeit vor 1945 integriert, kommt er zu einem innovativen Ergebnis: Die öffentlichen Kontroversen um Weltkrieg, Wehrmacht und Wertorientierung waren kein Hemmnis, sondern ein dynamisches Element jenes diskursiven und sozialen Prozesses, der die demokratisch-pluralistische Nachkriegsordnung in Westdeutschland legitimiert hat.

Young Jewish Poets Who Fell as Soviet Soldiers in the Second World War

Author: Rina Lapidus
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781134516834
Release Date: 2014-09-15
Genre: Social Science

This book deals with the work of fifteen young Jewish poets who were killed, died of wounds, or were executed in captivity while serving in the Red Army in the Second World War. All were young, all were poets, most were thoroughly assimilated into Soviet society whilst at the same time being rooted in Jewish culture and traditions. Their poetry, written mostly in Russian, Yiddish, and Ukrainian, was coloured by their backgrounds, by the literary and cultural climate that prevailed in the Soviet Union, and was deeply concerned with their expectation of impending death at the hands of the Nazis. The book examines the poets’ backgrounds, their lives, their poetry and their deaths. Like the experiences and poetry of the British First World War poets, the lives and poems of these young Jewish poets are extremely interesting and deeply moving.

The German Jewish Soldiers of the First World War in History and Memory

Author: Tim Grady
Publisher: Liverpool University Press
ISBN: 9781781388839
Release Date: 2011-09-13
Genre: History

The First World War saw almost 100,000 German Jews wear the uniform of the Imperial army; some 12,000 of these soldiers lost their lives in battle. Over the last century, public memory of their sacrifice has been very gradually subsumed into the much greater catastrophe of the Holocaust. This book focuses on the multifaceted ways in which these Jewish soldiers have variously been remembered and forgotten from 1914 through until the late 1970s. During and immediately after the conflict, Germany's Jewish population were active participants in a memory culture that honoured the war dead as national heroes. With the decline of the Weimar Republic and the National Socialists' rise to power, however, the public commemoration of the Jewish soldiers gradually faded, as Germany's Jewish communities were systematically destroyed by the Nazi regime. It was only in the late 1950s that both Jews and other Germans began to rediscover and to re-remember this largely neglected group. By examining Germany's complex and continually evolving memory culture, this book opens up a new approach to the study of both German and German-Jewish history. In doing so, it draws out a narrative of entangled and overlapping relations between Jews and non-Jews during the short twentieth century. The Jewish / non-Jewish relationship, the book argues, did not end on the battlefields of the First World War, but ran much deeper to extend through into the era of the Cold War.

The Great War

Author: Nick Mansfield
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
ISBN: 9781443861991
Release Date: 2014-06-19
Genre: History

The First World War was one of the prime motors of social change in modern British history. Culture and technology at all levels were transformed. The growing impact of the state, the introduction of modern democracy and change in political allegiance affected most aspects of the lives of UK citizens. Whilst most of the current centenary interest focuses on military aspects of the conflict, this volume considers how these fundamental changes varied from locality to locality within Britain’s Home Front. Taken together, did they drastically alter the long-established importance of regional variations within British society in the early twentieth century? Was there a common national response to these unprecedented events, or did strong regional identities cause significant variations? The series of case studies presented in this volume – ranging geographically and by topic – detail how communities coped with the war’s outbreak, its upheavals, its unprecedented mass mobilization on all fronts, and its unforeseen longevity.

The Oxford Illustrated History of the First World War

Author: Hew Strachan
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 9780191640414
Release Date: 2014-04-24
Genre: History

The First World War, now a century ago, still shapes the world in which we live, and its legacy lives on, in poetry, in prose, in collective memory and political culture. By the time the war ended in 1918, millions lay dead. Three major empires lay shattered by defeat, those of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottomans. A fourth, Russia, was in the throes of a revolution that helped define the rest of the twentieth century. The Oxford History of the First World War brings together in one volume many of the most distinguished historians of the conflict, in an account that matches the scale of the events. From its causes to its consequences, from the Western Front to the Eastern, from the strategy of the politicians to the tactics of the generals, they chart the course of the war and assess its profound political and human consequences. Chapters on economic mobilization, the impact on women, the role of propaganda, and the rise of socialism establish the wider context of the fighting at sea and in the air, and which ranged on land from the trenches of Flanders to the mountains of the Balkans and the deserts of the Middle East. First published for the 90th anniversary of the 1918 Armistice, this highly illustrated revised edition contains significant new material to mark the 100th anniversary of the war's outbreak.

War on Sacred Grounds

Author: Ron E. Hassner
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 0801460409
Release Date: 2009-08-13
Genre: Political Science

Sacred sites offer believers the possibility of communing with the divine and achieving deeper insight into their faith. Yet their spiritual and cultural importance can lead to competition as religious groups seek to exclude rivals from practicing potentially sacrilegious rituals in the hallowed space and wish to assert their own claims. Holy places thus create the potential for military, theological, or political clashes, not only between competing religious groups but also between religious groups and secular actors. In War on Sacred Grounds, Ron E. Hassner investigates the causes and properties of conflicts over sites that are both venerated and contested; he also proposes potential means for managing these disputes. Hassner illustrates a complex and poorly understood political dilemma with accounts of the failures to reach settlement at Temple Mount/Haram el-Sharif, leading to the clashes of 2000, and the competing claims of Hindus and Muslims at Ayodhya, which resulted in the destruction of the mosque there in 1992. He also addresses more successful compromises in Jerusalem in 1967 and Mecca in 1979. Sacred sites, he contends, are particularly prone to conflict because they provide valuable resources for both religious and political actors yet cannot be divided. The management of conflicts over sacred sites requires cooperation, Hassner suggests, between political leaders interested in promoting conflict resolution and religious leaders who can shape the meaning and value that sacred places hold for believers. Because a reconfiguration of sacred space requires a confluence of political will, religious authority, and a window of opportunity, it is relatively rare. Drawing on the study of religion and the study of politics in equal measure, Hassner's account offers insight into the often-violent dynamics that come into play at the places where religion and politics collide.

Places of Commemoration

Author: J. Wolschke-bulmah
Publisher: Dumbarton Oaks
ISBN: 0884022609
Release Date: 2001
Genre: Architecture

Places of Commemoration: Search for Identity and Landscape Design brings together these issues. The essays examine commemorative sites of different character, including gardens, landscapes, memorials, cemeteries, and sites of former Nazi concentration camps. They detail the ideas behind the creation of memorials and monuments and the struggles over the narratives they present.

Bodies of War

Author: Lisa M. Budreau
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 9780814791462
Release Date: 2009-11-01
Genre: History

The United States lost thousands of troops during World War I, and the government gave next-of-kin a choice about what to do with their fallen loved ones: ship them home for burial or leave them permanently in Europe, in makeshift graves that would be eventually transformed into cemeteries in France, Belgium, and England. World War I marked the first war in which the United States government and military took full responsibility for the identification, burial, and memorialization of those killed in battle, and as a result, the process of burying and remembering the dead became intensely political. The government and military attempted to create a patriotic consensus on the historical memory of World War I in which war dead were not only honored but used as a symbol to legitimize America’s participation in a war not fully supported by all citizens. The saga of American soldiers killed in World War I and the efforts of the living to honor them is a neglected component of United States military history, and in this fascinating yet often macabre account, Lisa M. Budreau unpacks the politics and processes of the competing interest groups involved in the three core components of commemoration: repatriation, remembrance, and return. She also describes how relatives of the fallen made pilgrimages to French battlefields, attended largely by American Legionnaires and the Gold Star Mothers, a group formed by mothers of sons killed in World War I, which exists to this day. Throughout, and with sensitivity to issues of race and gender, Bodies of War emphasizes the inherent tensions in the politics of memorialization and explores how those interests often conflicted with the needs of veterans and relatives.

Nature and History in Modern Italy

Author: Marco Armiero
Publisher: Ohio University Press
ISBN: 9780821443477
Release Date: 2010-08-15
Genre: History

Is Italy il bel paese—the beautiful country—where tourists spend their vacations looking for art, history, and scenery? Or is it a land whose beauty has been cursed by humanity’s greed and nature’s cruelty? The answer is largely a matter of narrative and the narrator’s vision of Italy. The fifteen essays in Nature and History in Modern Italy investigate that nation’s long experience in managing domesticated rather than wild natures and offer insight into these conflicting visions. Italians shaped their land in the most literal sense, producing the landscape, sculpting its heritage, embedding memory in nature, and rendering the two different visions inseparable. The interplay of Italy’s rich human history and its dramatic natural diversity is a subject with broad appeal to a wide range of readers.