Constructive Methods in Computing Science

Author: Manfred Broy
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642748844
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Computers

Computing Science is a science of constructive methods. The solution of a problem has to be described formally by constructive techniques, if it is to be evaluated on a computer. The Marktoberdorf Advanced Study Institute 1988 presented a comprehensive survey of the recent research in constructive methods in Computing Science. Some approaches to a methodological framework and to supporting tools for specification, development and verification of software systems were discussed in detail. Other lectures dealt with the relevance of the foundations of logic for questions of program construction and with new programming paradigms and formalisms which have proven to be useful for a constructive approach to software development. The construction, specification, design and verification especially of distributed and communicating systems was discussed in a number of complementary lectures. Examples for those approaches were given on several levels such as semaphores, nondeterministic state transition systems with fairness assumptions, decomposition of specifications for concurrent systems in liveness and safety properties and functional specifications of distributed systems. Construction methods in programming that were presented range from type theory, the theory of evidence, theorem provers for proving properties of functional programs to category theory as an abstract and general concept for the description of programming paradigms.

Direito da Comunica o Social

Author: JOÃO PEDRO; CARVALHO FIGUEIREDO
Publisher: Leya
ISBN: 9789724744872
Release Date: 2012-02-27
Genre: Law

A revolução tecnológica dos últimos anos no sector da comunicação social tem obrigado os Estados e as organizações a produzirem abundante legislação para dar resposta aos problemas que surgem. Ao mesmo tempo, o poder adquirido pelos media na sociedade contemporânea levou a uma protecção acrescida dos direitos de personalidade, centrada em bens jurídicos autonomizados, como a imagem, a palavra ou a reserva da vida privada e familiar. Assim, quase todos os ramos do Direito conhecem desenvolvimentos específicos nesta área. Este livro propõe-se fornecer um quadro global do regime da comunicação social em Portugal, à luz dos antecedentes históricos e das experiências estrangeiras de maior relevância. Pretende-se fornecer aos juristas, mas também a jornalistas e estudantes dos cursos superiores de Comunicação Social, uma obra que lhes permita conhecer os aspectos essenciais do Direito da Comunicação Social.

Subdifferentials

Author: A.G. Kusraev
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789401102650
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Mathematics

The subject of the present book is sub differential calculus. The main source of this branch of functional analysis is the theory of extremal problems. For a start, we explicate the origin and statement of the principal problems of sub differential calculus. To this end, consider an abstract minimization problem formulated as follows: x E X, f(x) --+ inf. Here X is a vector space and f : X --+ iR is a numeric function taking possibly infinite values. In these circumstances, we are usually interested in the quantity inf f( x), the value of the problem, and in a solution or an optimum plan of the problem (i. e. , such an x that f(x) = inf f(X», if the latter exists. It is a rare occurrence to solve an arbitrary problem explicitly, i. e. to exhibit the value of the problem and one of its solutions. In this respect it becomes necessary to simplify the initial problem by reducing it to somewhat more manageable modifications formulated with the details of the structure of the objective function taken in due account. The conventional hypothesis presumed in attempts at theoretically approaching the reduction sought is as follows. Introducing an auxiliary function 1, one considers the next problem: x EX, f(x) -l(x) --+ inf. Furthermore, the new problem is assumed to be as complicated as the initial prob lem provided that 1 is a linear functional over X, i. e.