Author: Jay Kinsbruner
Publisher: University of Texas Press
Release Date: 2010-01-01
The colonial Spanish-American city, like its counterpart across the Atlantic, was an outgrowth of commercial enterprise. A center of entrepreneurial activity and wealth, it drew people seeking a better life, with more educational, occupational, commercial, bureaucratic, and marital possibilities than were available in the rural regions of the Spanish colonies. Indeed, the Spanish-American city represented hope and opportunity, although not for everyone. In this authoritative work, Jay Kinsbruner draws on many sources to offer the first history and interpretation in English of the colonial Spanish-American city. After an overview of pre-Columbian cities, he devotes chapters to many important aspects of the colonial city, including its governance and administrative structure, physical form, economy, and social and family life. Kinsbruner's overarching thesis is that the Spanish-American city evolved as a circumstance of trans-Atlantic capitalism. Underpinning this thesis is his view that there were no plebeians in the colonial city. He calls for a class interpretation, with an emphasis on the lower-middle class. His study also explores the active roles of women, many of them heads of households, in the colonial Spanish-American city.
This study compares Melaka and Penang in the context of overall trends - policy, geographical position, nature and direction of trade, and morphology and sociology - and how these factors were influenced by trade and policies. Conclusions are drawn concerning where and how Melaka and Penang fit in the urban traditions of Southeast Asia and the significance of the fact that the period under study coincided with the shift from the height of the "Age of Commerce" towards a period of heightened imperialist activities.
Author: R.J. Ross
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2012-12-06
by ROBERT ROSS and GERARD J. TELKAMP I In a sense, cities were superfluous to the purposes of colonists. The Europeans who founded empires outside their own continent were primarily concerned with extracting those products which they could not acquire within Europe. These goods were largely agricultural, and grown most often in a climate not found within Europe. Even when, as in India before 1800, the major exports were manufactures, in general they were still made in the countryside rather than in the great cities. It was only on rare occasion when great mineral wealth was discovered that giant metropolises grew up around the site of extraction. Since their location was deter mined by geology, not economics, they might be in the most inaccessible and in convenient areas, but they too would draw labour off from the agricultural pursuits of the colony as a whole. From the point of view of the colonists, the cities were therefore in some respects necessary evils, as they were parasites on the rural producers, competing with the colonists in the process of surplus extraction. Nevertheless, the colonists could not do without cities. The requirements of colonisation demanded many unequivocally urban functions. Pre-eminent among these was of course the need for a port, to allow the export of colonial wares and the import of goods from Europe, or from other parts of the non-European world, in the country-trade as it was known around India.
Author: Chapel Hill Peter A. Coclanis Professor of History University of North Carolina
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
Release Date: 1989-02-23
This important new book charts the economic and social rise and fall of a small, but intriguing part of the American South: Charleston and the surrounding South Carolina low country. Spanning 250 years, Coclanis's study analyzes the interaction of both external and internal forces on the city and countryside, examining the effects of various factors--the environment, the market, economic and political ideology, and social institutions--on the region's economy from its colonial beginnings to its collapse in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
Author: Bill Freund
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Release Date: 2007
This book gives a comprehensive picture of cities in Africa from early origins to the present. It views towns and cities as an inherent part of developing Africa and emphasizes the extent to which the future of African society and African culture will likely be played out mostly in cities.
Author: Nicholas P. Cushner
Publisher: SUNY Press
Release Date: 1984-06-01
Jesuit Ranches and the Agrarian Development of Colonial Argentina, 1650-1767, is the last book in a trilogy that examines Jesuit economic activity in three major geographic regions of colonial Spanish America. The first, Lords of the Land, focuses on Jesuit sugar and wine production on the Peruvian coast, primarily from the viewpoint of the agricultural geographer. The second, Farm and Factory, examines the complex of Jesuit farm, wool, and textile production in Interandine Ecuador insofar as it contributed to the beginnings of agrarian capitalism in Latin America. This book examines the agro-pastoral development of colonial Argentina, primarily Tucumán, its farms, its ranches, and its trade connections with Alto Peru. Three major geographical regions are thus studied, each specializing in a distinct complex of economic enterprises, but each linked by trade routes that crossed snowy mountains and traversed barren deserts.