Author: Bruce Wardhaugh
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Release Date: 2014-02-06
"As a means of industrial organization, cartels have had mixed acceptance in Europe after the end of the Industrial Revolution. In the late Nineteenth Century there were approximately four industry-wide cartels operating in Germany. By 1923, the figure had grown to over 1,500. Such organizations were a common, legal and (often) encouraged means of facilitating industrial and national development" -- Provided by publisher.
Author: Christopher Harding
Release Date: 2016-04-08
Genre: Social Science
Anti-competitive business cartels, engaging in practices such as price fixing, market sharing, bid rigging and restrictions on output, are now subject to strong official censure and rigorous legal control in a large number of jurisdictions across the world. The longstanding condemnation under the US Sherman Act of 1890 has been taken up (although in a rather different form) during the last thirty years in the EC/EU and in European national jurisdictions in particular, but also in a range of countries outside North America and Europe. Legal control has not only extended geographically but has intensified, as a number of jurisdictions have moved beyond administrative regulation and penalties to embrace enforcement through civil liability and (most significantly in terms of policy and rhetoric) the methods of criminal law. It is therefore timely to consider critically this development of legal control and assess its achievement to date and its future prospects. But such an exercise requires an understanding of the reasons and need for such regulation, based on a clear appreciation of the nature and extent of the economic and social malaise which is its subject. What, more exactly, are such business cartels, why do they come into existence and persist, why are they regarded as being so bad, and what are the objectives within this increasingly complex and multi-level phenomenon of legal control? By seeking to answer such fundamental questions, this book sets a research agenda for a pathology, aetiology and criminology of business cartels, and probes more accurately their nature, operation, endurance and perceived delinquency.
Author: Peter Whelan
Publisher: OUP Oxford
Release Date: 2014-08-07
Cartel activity is prohibited under EU law by virtue of Article 101(1) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. Firms that violate this provision face severe punishment from those entities responsible for enforcing EU competition law: the European Commission, the national competition authorities, and the national courts. Stiff fines are regularly imposed on firms by these entities; such firm-focused punishment is an established feature of the antitrust enforcement landscape within the EU. In recent years, however, focus has also been placed on the individuals within the firms responsible for the cartel activity. It is increasingly recognized that punishment for cartel activity should be individual-focused as well as firm-focused. Accordingly, a growing tendency to criminalize cartel activity can be observed in the EU Member States. The existence of such criminal sanctions within the EU presents a number of crucial challenges that need to be met if the underlying enforcement objectives are to be achieved in practice without violating prevailing legal norms. For a start, given the severe consequences of a custodial sentence, the employment of criminal antitrust punishment must be justifiable in principle: one must have a robust normative framework rationalizing the existence of criminal cartel sanctions. Second, for it to be legitimate, antitrust criminalization should only occur in a manner that respects the mandatory legalities applicable to the European jurisdiction in question. These include the due process rights of the accused and the principle of legal certainty. Finally, the correct practical measures (such as a criminal leniency policy and a correctly defined criminal cartel offence) need to be in place in order to ensure that the employment of criminal antitrust punishment actually achieves its aims while maintaining its legitimacy. These three particular challenges can be conceptualized respectively as the theoretical, legal, and practical challenges of European antitrust criminalization. This book analyses these three crucial challenges so that the complexity of the process of European antitrust criminalization can be understood more accurately. In doing so, this book acknowledges that the three challenges should not be considered in isolation. In fact there is a dynamic relationship between the theoretical, legal, and practical challenges of European antitrust criminalization and an effective antitrust criminalization policy is one which recognizes and respects this complex interaction.
This book is inspired by the international movement towards the criminalisation of cartel conduct over the last decade. Led by US enforcers, criminalisation has been supported by a growing number of regulators and governments. It derives its support from the simple yet forceful proposition that criminal sanctions, particularly jail time, are the most effective deterrent to such activity. However, criminalisation is much more complex than that basic proposition suggests. There is complexity both in terms of the various forces that are driving and shaping the movement (economic, political and social) and in the effects on the various actors involved in it (government, enforcement agencies, the business community, judiciary, legal profession and general public). Featuring contributions from authors who have been at the forefront of the debate around the world, this substantial 19-chapter volume captures the richness of the criminalisation phenomenon and considers its implications for building an effective criminal cartel regime, particularly outside of the US. It adopts a range of approaches, including general theoretical perspectives (from criminal theory, economics, political science, regulation and criminology) and case-studies of the experience with the design and enforcement of existing or contemplated criminal cartel regimes in various jurisdictions (including in Australia, Canada, EU, Germany, Ireland and the UK). The book also explores the international dimensions of criminalisation - its specific practical consequences (such as increased potential for extradition) as well as its more general implications for trends of harmonisation or convergence in competition law and enforcement.
Author: Mark Furse
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
Release Date: 2012-01-01
In 2002, the UK introduced a criminal competition law into the UK legal system for the first time since the 18th century. Using a range of analytical lenses, Mark Furse re-appraises this law ten years on, and provides an extensive analysis of its features. This invigorating work details the policy arguments behind the introduction of the law, and examines Ð through consideration of the successful prosecutions in the US Ð the extent to which the law in practice may be considered to have succeeded or failed in the UK. The role of the US as global antitrust policeman is also considered. The book concludes with a consideration of the difficulties facing the UK in choosing to pursue a criminal route within the current civil framework. Including full discussions of relevant literature relating to the criminalisation of cartels, and the use of personal sanctions against cartelists, this book will appeal to postgraduates and advanced undergraduate students of competition law, competition law practitioners in the UK, EU and US, as well as competition law enforcement personnel.
Author: Roger D. Blair
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 2014-11-03
Genre: Business & Economics
More than any other area of regulation, antitrust economics shapes law and policy in the United States, the Americas, Europe, and Asia. In a number of different areas of antitrust, advances in theory and empirical work have caused a fundamental reevaluation and shift of some of the assumptions behind antitrust policy. This reevaluation has profound implications for the future of the field. The Oxford Handbook of International Antitrust Economics has collected chapters from many of the leading figures in antitrust. In doing so, this two volume Handbook provides an important reference guide for scholars, teachers, and practitioners. However, it is more than a merely reference guide. Rather, it has a number of different goals. First, it takes stock of the current state of scholarship across a number of different antitrust topics. In doing so, it relies primarily upon the economics scholarship. In some situations, though, there is also coverage of legal scholarship, case law developments, and legal policies. The second goal of the Handbook is to provide some ideas about future directions of antitrust scholarship and policy. Antitrust economics has evolved over the last 60 years. It has both shaped policy and been shaped by policy. The Oxford Handbook of International Antitrust Economics will serve as a policy and research guide of next steps to consider when shaping the future of the field of antitrust.
Author: Peter Davis
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Release Date: 2009-11-16
Genre: Business & Economics
This book combines practical guidance and theoretical background for analysts using empirical techniques in competition and antitrust investigations. Peter Davis and Eliana Garcés show how to integrate empirical methods, economic theory, and broad evidence about industry in order to provide high-quality, robust empirical work that is tailored to the nature and quality of data available and that can withstand expert and judicial scrutiny. Davis and Garcés describe the toolbox of empirical techniques currently available, explain how to establish the weight of pieces of empirical work, and make some new theoretical contributions. The book consistently evaluates empirical techniques in light of the challenge faced by competition analysts and academics--to provide evidence that can stand up to the review of experts and judges. The book's integrated approach will help analysts clarify the assumptions underlying pieces of empirical work, evaluate those assumptions in light of industry knowledge, and guide future work aimed at understanding whether the assumptions are valid. Throughout, Davis and Garcés work to expand the common ground between practitioners and academics.
Criminal cartel activity, such as competitors conspiring to set prices, can harm consumers and the U.S. economy through lack of competition and overcharges. The Dept. of Justice (DoJ) leniency program offers the possibility that the first individual or co. that self-reports cartel activity will avoid criminal conviction and penalties. The Antitrust Criminal Penalty Enhancement and Reform Act (ACPERA) encourages such reporting. This report addresses: (1) the extent that ACPERA affected DoJ¿s criminal cartel enforcement; (2) the ways ACPERA has affected private civil actions; and (3) key stakeholder perspectives on rewards and anti-retaliatory protection for whistleblowers reporting antitrust violations. Illus. This is a print on demand report.
Author: Barry F. McNeil
Publisher: American Bar Association
Release Date: 2007
In the wake of highly publicized corporate shake-ups, internal investigations have gained national prominence and established themselves as an important tool of management. This newly updated and expanded resource guides you through the intricate steps of conducting an effective and efficient internal investigation. Each chapter covers one aspect of conducting an investigation, clearly describing and advising you on the methods and skills involved, while providing you with practical tips on anticipating, recognizing, and avoiding the traps you are certain to encounter.
Author: Eleanor M. Fox
Publisher: West Academic
Release Date: 2010
This title covers international and comparative issues of antitrust law, economics and policy. It may be used to enrich US antitrust casebooks or as a stand-alone for courses on global antitrust. It addresses all major issues of competition law and global competition policy, including extraterritoriality; global norms; cooperation, convergence and divergence; the state's role in restraining or facilitating competition; process and procedures; and substantive areas including cartels, horizontal and vertical agreements, abuse of dominance, and mergers. It compares developed and developing jurisdictions. It references numerous jurisdictions including the EU, China, Japan, India, Russia, South Africa, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, and Latin American countries. "This volume is a majestic survey of an issue whose time has truly come. It will not only be a building block in the enterprise of aligning global markets and national antitrust; it is a veritable world tour of the rules and practices that already propel that world further and map out its future direction." David Lewis, Professor, Gordon Institute of Business Science, Johannesburg, and immediate past Chairperson of the South African Competition Tribunal
Author: Jan Kuhnert
Release Date: 2017-02-21
Genre: Political Science
In diesem Buch werden umsetzungsorientierte Konzepte zur Einführung einer neuen Wohnungsgemeinnützigkeit in Deutschland auf der Grundlage der Erfahrungen in ihrer langen Geschichte (1851 bis 1989) entwickelt. Hierfür werden historische, rechtliche und politische Gesichtspunkte sowie die europarechtlichen Rahmenbedingungen aufbereitet. Anhand der Beispiele von Österreich und den Niederlanden werden auch zwei aktuelle Wege einer sozialen Wohnraumversorgung analysiert und nutzbar gemacht. Für eine neue Wohnungsgemeinnützigkeit werden schnell umsetzbare Maßnahmen sowie ein detailliertes Konzept für den Aufbau eines größeren gemeinwohlorientierten Wohnungsangebotes vorgeschlagen.
Author: Gary L. Reback
Release Date: 2009-04-16
Genre: Business & Economics
Why we need government intervention in the free market to protect competition and encourage innovation Starting about thirty years ago, conservatives forced an overhaul of competition policy that has loosened business rules for everything from selling products to buying competitors. Gary Reback thinks the changes have gone too far. Today's competition policies, he argues, were made for the old manufacturing economy of the 1970s. But in a high-tech world, these policies actually slow innovation, hurt consumers, and entrench big companies at the expense of entrepreneurs. Free the Market! is both a memoir of Reback's titanic legal battles—involving top companies such as Apple, Microsoft, IBM, Oracle, and AT&T—and a persuasive argument for measured government intervention in the free market to foster competition. Among the fascinating questions he considers: Can a company ever compete too hard for the public good? Should policy makers worry more about promoting competition or improving efficiency? Does it help consumers when a manufacturer sets the prices its retailers charge? Should the government do more to stop controversial mergers? At what point does intellectual property protection hurt innovation?
Author: Christopher Harding
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
Release Date: 2003
One of the most contentious and high-profile aspects of European Community competition law and policy has been the regulation of what may be described as serious antitrust violations, typically involving large and powerful corporate producers and traders operating across Europe, if not also in a wider international context. Such 'hard core' cartels characteristically engage in practices such as price fixing, bid rigging, market sharing and limiting production in order to ensure 'marketstability' and maintain and increase profits. There is little doubt now in terms of competition theory and policy at both international and national levels about the damaging effect of such trading practices on public and consumer interests, and such cartels have been increasingly strongly condemned in the legal process of regulating and protecting competition. Indeed, a number of legal systems are now following the American lead in criminalizing such activity. This may therefore be seen as the 'hard end' of the enforcement of competition policy, requiring more confrontational and aggressive methods of regulation, yet also presenting considerable challenges to effective enforcement on account of the economic power, sophistication and determination of the typical participants in such cartels. The focus of this study is a critical evaluation of the way in which European-level regulation has evolved to deal with the problem of anti-competitive cartels. It traces the historical development of cartel regulation in Europe, comparing the pragmatic and empirical approach traditional in Europe with the more dogmatic and uncompromising American policy on cartels and asks whether a fully-fledged criminal proceeding (with its attendant level of legal safeguards) is the most appropriate approach to legal regulation .
Author: Ariel Ezrachi
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
Release Date: 2012-01-01
The Research Handbook on International Competition Law brings together leading academics, practitioners and competition officials to discuss the most recent developments in international competition law and policy. This comprehensive Handbook explores the dynamics of international cooperation and national enforcement. It identifies initiatives that led to the current state of collaboration and also highlights current and future challenges. The Handbook features twenty-two contributions on topical subjects including: competition in developed and developing economies, enforcement trends, advocacy and regional and multinational cooperation. In addition, selected areas of law are explored from a comparative perspective. These include intellectual property and competition law, the pharmaceutical industry, merger control worldwide and the application of competition law to agreements and dominant market position. Presenting an overview of the current state of cooperation and convergence as well as a comparative analysis of substance and procedure, this authoritative Handbook will prove an invaluable reference tool for academics, competition officials and practitioners who focus on international competition law.