Aerosol Measurement

Author: Pramod Kulkarni
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118001672
Release Date: 2011-09-09
Genre: Science

Aerosol Measurement: Principles, Techniques, and Applications Third Edition is the most detailed treatment available of the latest aerosol measurement methods. Drawing on the know-how of numerous expert contributors; it provides a solid grasp of measurement fundamentals and practices a wide variety of aerosol applications. This new edition is updated to address new and developing applications of aerosol measurement, including applications in environmental health, atmospheric science, climate change, air pollution, public health, nanotechnology, particle and powder technology, pharmaceutical research and development, clean room technology (integrated circuit manufacture), and nuclear waste management.

Aerosol Measurement

Author: Paul A. Baron
Publisher: Wiley-Interscience
ISBN: 0471784923
Release Date: 2005-11-04
Genre: Science

In recent years, industry has become increasingly interested in modern aerosol measurement methods, not only to protect the health of their workers but also to augment productivity and thereby gain competitive advantage. Aerosol Measurement: Principles, Techniques, and Applications, Second Edition offers scientists and practitioners the fundamental principles used in deciding which aerosol properties to measure and how to interpret the results. Divided into three parts, the material reviews the physical understanding of aerosols, covers specific instrumental techniques, and explains applications in fields ranging from health care to mining and upper-atmosphere research. Leading experts contribute to the review of such areas as direct-reading techniques, bioaerosol sampling, indoor air evaluations, industrial aerosol processing, and measurement in semiconductor clean rooms. Plus, all the chapters in this latest edition have been updated and some have been rewritten by new authors. Two new chapters have been added: one on historical aspects of aerosol measurements and the other on real-time single particle analysis.

Radioactive Aerosols

Author: Constantin Papastefanou
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080555985
Release Date: 2011-07-28
Genre: Medical

Whenever radioactivity is released to the atmosphere, for example by the detonation of nuclear weapons or the testing of nuclear weapons or from nuclear reactor accidents that fraction of it which remains airborne for more than a few hours is liable to be attached to aerosol particles. The resulting radioactive aerosols are carried by atmospheric mixing processes until they settle out or are scavenged by precipitation. The radiation exposure pathway of maximum concern to humans is by inhalation of aerosols and their deposition in the respiratory tract. In this context, it is important to note that radioactive aerosols are commonly of natural origin alos. In particular, the associated radionuclides can be of natural terrestrial origin, such as the decay products of radon gas, or they can e cosmogenic, such as beryllium-7. The exposure of miners of uranium and other ores and minerals to radon and its aerosol-borne decay products is of major significance. The book describes the formation of aerosols, their aerodynamic size distribution, their atmospheric residence time, their sampling and measurement, the range of radioactive aerosols found and studied thus far, including man-made nuclides and radon decay products and their interaction with man, including deposition in the lung and subsequent health effects. Advanced level science handbook for researchers, scientists and academics Covers all aspects of radiation exposure in humans, including subsequent health implications Presents the latest findings and analysis in this highly topical area

Fine Particles

Author: Benjamin Y.H. Liu
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780323142212
Release Date: 2012-12-02
Genre: Science

Fine Particles: Aerosol Generation, Measurement, Sampling, and Analysis is a collection of technical papers presented at the Symposium on Fine Particles held in Minneapolis, Minnesota, on May 28-30, 1975. The symposium aims to explore the developments in instrumentation and experimental techniques for aerosol studies. This book is organized into four parts encompassing 34 chapters that focus on fine particles below about 3.5 μm in diameter. Part I presents the research and development in Europe and Japan on fine particles and aerosols, as well as the aerosol standards development work at the Particle Technology Laboratory, University of Minnesota. This part also includes calibration studies on condensation nuclei counters and the diffusion battery. Significant chapters in Part II are devoted to the common techniques for generation of aerosols of various sizes, from fine particles to monodisperse aerosols. This part further looks into the equipment limitations and problems in producing fine particle aerosols for life testing air cleaning systems and for weather modification experimentation. Part III describes the techniques and equipment used for size-selective aerosol sampling in terms of the design principles applied, the correspondence between design and performance of specific samplers, their applicability to field conditions, and their ability to satisfy sampler acceptance criteria. Part IV deals first with the methods for determination of aerosol properties, including their optical, electrical, and spectral properties. Other chapters examine the principles, mode of operation, and application of processes and instruments for aerosol studies.

Analytical Techniques for Atmospheric Measurement

Author: Dwayne Heard
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781405171441
Release Date: 2008-04-15
Genre: Science

Almost all of the breakthroughs in understanding the atmosphere have been initiated by field observations, using a range of instrumental techniques. Developing or deploying instruments to make further observations demands a thorough understanding of the chemical and spectroscopic principles on which such measurements depend. Written as an authoritative guide to the techniques of instrumental measurement for the atmospheric scientist, research student or undergraduate, Analytical Techniques for Atmospheric Measurement focuses on the instruments used to make real time measurements of atmospheric gas and aerosol composition. Topics covered include how they work, their strengths and weaknesses for a particular task, the platforms on which they have been deployed and how they are calibrated. It explains the fundamental principles upon which the instrumental techniques are based (ie what property of a molecule can be exploited to enable its detection), what limits instrumental sensitivity and accuracy, and the information that can be gained from their use.

Aerosol Science

Author: Ian Colbeck
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781118675359
Release Date: 2014-01-30
Genre: Science

Aerosols influence many areas of our daily life. They are at the core of environmental problems such as global warming, photochemical smog and poor air quality. They can also have diverse effects on human health, where exposure occurs in both outdoor and indoor environments. However, aerosols can have beneficial effects too; the delivery of drugs to the lungs, the delivery of fuels for combustion and the production of nanomaterials all rely on aerosols. Advances in particle measurement technologies have made it possible to take advantage of rapid changes in both particle size and concentration. Likewise, aerosols can now be produced in a controlled fashion. Reviewing many technological applications together with the current scientific status of aerosol modelling and measurements, this book includes: • Satellite aerosol remote sensing • The effects of aerosols on climate change • Air pollution and health • Pharmaceutical aerosols and pulmonary drug delivery • Bioaerosols and hospital infections • Particle emissions from vehicles • The safety of emerging nanomaterials • Radioactive aerosols: tracers of atmospheric processes With the importance of this topic brought to the public’s attention after the eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull, this book provides a timely, concise and accessible overview of the many facets of aerosol science.

Aerosol Technology

Author: William C. Hinds
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781118591970
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Technology & Engineering

The #1 guide to aerosol science and technology -now better than ever Since 1982, Aerosol Technology has been the text of choice among students and professionals who need to acquire a thorough working knowledge of modern aerosol theory and applications. Now revised to reflect the considerable advances that have been made over the past seventeen years across a broad spectrum of aerosol-related application areas - from occupational hygiene and biomedical technology to microelectronics and pollution control -this new edition includes: * A chapter on bioaerosols * New sections on resuspension, transport losses, respiratory deposition models, and fractal characterization of particles * Expanded coverage of atmospheric aerosols, including background aerosols and urban aerosols * A section on the impact of aerosols on global warming and ozone depletion. Aerosol Technology, Second Edition also features dozens of new, fully worked examples drawn from a wide range of industrial and research settings, plus new chapter-end practice problems to help readers master the material quickly.

Aerosol Sampling

Author: James H. Vincent
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780470060223
Release Date: 2007-04-04
Genre: Science

This book provides a comprehensive account of the important field of aerosol sampling as it is applied to the measurement of aerosols that are ubiquitous in occupational and living environments, both indoor and outdoor. It is written in four parts: Part A contains 9 chapters that describe the current knowledge of the physical science that underpins the process of aerosol sampling. Part B contains 4 chapters, which present the basis of standards for aerosols, including the link with human exposure by inhalation. Part C contains 7 chapters that cover the development of practical aerosol sampling instrumentation, and how technical designs and methods have evolved over the years in order that aerosol sampling may be carried out in a manner matching the health-related and other criteria that have been proposed as parts of standards. Finally Part D contains 6 chapters that describe how a wide range of aerosol sampling instruments have performed when they have been applied in the field in both occupational and ambient atmospheric environments, including how different instruments, nominally intended to measure the same aerosol fraction, compare when used side-by-side in the real world. The book draws together all that is known about aerosol sampling, for the benefit of researchers and practitioners in occupational and environmental health and all other fields of science and engineering where aerosols are of interest.

Atmospheric Microbial Aerosols

Author: Bruce Lighthart
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781468464382
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Science

A bioaerosol is a colloidal suspension of liquid droplets or solid particles in air whose components contain or have attached to them one or more microorganisms. Bioaerosols are an exciting and vital object of study because the attached microbes play a critical role in human, animal and environmental health. In an era of genetically engineered microorganisms and the application of biopesticides, bioaerosols are increasingly an environmental problem, both indoors and outdoors, and can affect entire ecosystems. Atmospheric Microbial Aerosols examines naturally occuring bioaerosols, as well as bioaerosols generated by human activity. Included in this volume is a complete array of topics concerned with outdoor microbial bioaerosols ranging from the physical and chemical to the meteorological and microbial. It will be of great interest as a starting point for researchers interested in outdoor microbial bioaerosols as well as for those interested in atmospheric dispersion models, new equipment, and government regulations.

Environmental Pollution Control

Author: Jingling Liu
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 9783110538311
Release Date: 2017-09-11
Genre: Science

The book illustrates theories of sustainable development from physical, chemical and biological aspects, and then introduces technologies to prevent pollution of water, air, solid waste and noise, finally concludes with ecological environmental protection and restoration techniques. With interdisciplinary features and abundant case studies, it is an essential reference for researchers and industrial engineers.

Instrumentation for Fluid Particle Flow

Author: S.L. Soo
Publisher: Univ. Press of Mississippi
ISBN: 0080946690
Release Date: 2013-01-15
Genre: Science

A focus on methods of measurement and options for engineers and scientists performing research and evaluation of particle-fluid flow systems. Improved instrumentation for measurement in this field is an essential element in the progress of research and engineering of multi-phase flow systems. Some of the most original and productive research specialists in the field of particle-fluid flow systems are assembled in this book, which is an important and current reference volume.

Inversion Methods in Atmospheric Remote Sounding

Author: Adarsh Deepak
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780323144148
Release Date: 2012-12-02
Genre: Science

Inversion Methods in Atmospheric Remote Sounding contains the technical proceedings of the First International Interactive Workshop on Inversion Methods in Atmospheric Remote Sounding, held in Williamsburg, Virginia, on December 15-17, 1976. The papers review the state of the art in inversion methods used in retrieving information about the atmosphere from remotely sensed data. The mathematical theory of inversion methods is described, together with the application of these methods to the remote sounding of atmospheric temperature, relative humidity, and gaseous and aerosol constituents. Comprised of 21 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to methods for solving problems in radiative transfer and multiple scattering, followed by a discussion on the problem of radiative transfer in a scattering plane-parallel atmosphere. The next section is devoted to the mathematical theory of inversion methods and considers some aspects of the inversion problem in remote sensing, along with the relaxation method for the inverse solution of nonlinear and linear transfer equations. The final section explores inversion methods in gaseous, thermal, and aerosol atmospheres, covering topics such as the Backus-Gilbert theory and its application to retrieval of ozone and temperature profiles; inversion of scattered radiance horizon profiles for gaseous concentrations and aerosol parameters; and inversion of passive microwave remote sensing data from satellites. This monograph will be of interest to scientists from universities, government agencies, and research laboratories.

Aerosols

Author: George Hidy
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780323142519
Release Date: 2012-12-02
Genre: Science

Aerosols: An Industrial and Environmental Science is a comprehensive account of the science and technology of aerosols as well as their aerodynamic and physico-chemical properties. Measurement techniques and results are presented in terms of a framework of classical mechanics and macroscopic chemistry. This book is comprised of 10 chapters and begins with a discussion on the foundations of modern aerosol science and technology, followed by a review of the dynamic theory of aerosols as rigid spheres. The production of particle suspensions, the methods of particle sampling and measurement, and physical or chemical characterization are then considered, along with particle diffusion by Brownian motion, particle formation and growth, and coagulation processes. The formation of particle clouds is described by means of molecular agglomeration (condensation) processes, breakup and disintegration, and chemical reactions. The remaining chapters focus on several major applications of aerosol science in areas such as combustion, agriculture, and medicine. This monograph is intended to serve scientists and engineers who are concerned with the underlying principles of aerodynamic and physical chemical behavior of aerosols, and could also be used as a text for graduate students in specialized courses on aerosol or colloid chemistry, atmospheric processes, and chemical, mechanical, or environmental engineering.