This ground-breaking book brings together cutting-edge researchers who study the transformation of practice through the enhancement and transformation of expertise. This is an important moment for such a contribution because expertise is in transition - moving toward collaboration in inter-organizational fields and continuous shaping of transformations. To understand and master this transition, powerful new conceptual tools are needed and are provided here. The theoretical framework which has shaped these studies is Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT). CHAT analyses how people and organisations learn to do something new, and how both individuals and organisations change. The theoretical and methodological tools used have their origins in the work of Lev Vygotsky and A.N. Leont’ev. In recent years this body of work has aroused significant interest across the social sciences, management and communication studies. Working as part of an integrated international team, the authors identify specific findings which are of direct interest to the academic community, such as: the analysis of vertical learning between operational and strategic levels within complex organizations; the refinement of notions of identity and subject position within CHAT; the introduction of the concept of ‘labour power’ into CHAT; the development of a method of analysing discourse which theoretically coheres with CHAT and the design of projects. Activity Theory in Practice will be highly useful to practitioners, researchers, students and policy-makers who are interested in conceptual and empirical issues in all aspects of ‘activity-based’ research.
The ever evolving, technology-intensive nature of the twenty-first century workplace has caused an acceleration in the division of labour, whereby work practices are becoming highly specialised and learning and the communication of knowledge is in a constant state of flux. This poses a challenge for education and learning: as knowledge and expertise increasingly evolve, how can individuals be prepared through education to participate in specific industries and organisations, both as newcomers and throughout their careers? Learning Across Sites brings together a diverse range of contributions from leading international researchers to examine the impacts and roles which evolving digital technologies have on our navigation of education and professional work environments. Viewing learning as a socially organised activity, the contributors explore the evolution of learning technologies and knowledge acquisition in networked societies through empirical research in a range of industries and workplaces. The areas of study include public administration, engineering, production, and healthcare and the contributions address the following questions: How are learning activities organised? How are tools and infrastructures used? What competences are needed to participate in specialised activities? What counts as knowledge in multiple and diverse settings? Where can parallels be drawn between workplaces? Addressing an emerging problem of adaptation in contemporary education, this book is essential reading for all those undertaking postgraduate study and research in the fields of educational psychology, informatics and applied information technology.
The contributors to this collection employ the analytic resources of cultural-historical theory to examine the relationship between childhood and children's development under different societal conditions. In particular they attend to relationships between development, emotions, motives and identities, and the social practices in which children and young people may be learners. These practices are knowledge-laden, imbued with cultural values and emotionally freighted by those who already act in them. The book first discusses the organising principles that underpin a cultural-historical understanding of motives, development and learning. The second section foregrounds children's lives to exemplify the implications of these ideas as they are played out - examining how children are positioned as learners in pre-school, primary school and play environments. The final section uses the core ideas to look at the implementation of policy aimed at enhancing children's engagement with opportunities for learning, by discussing motives in the organisations that shape children's development.
In this concise and accessible guide, the authors are sympathetic to the particular demands of teaching three to seven year olds and offer practical solutions to the complex issues that are currently faced by early years educators. the aim is to support teacher expertise through stimulating teachers' thinking about children's development, motivation, ways of learning and the subjects they teach.
There is a growing interest in activity theory across behavioral and social sciences. Activity theory has a very rich and solid heritage in the works of Vygotsky, Luria, and Leont'ev. The development of activity theory depends on the understanding of this heritage. However, this literature is very demanding and often proves inaccessible to new generations of scholars who want to pursue empirical studies. How can students and young researchers be helped to engage with this heritage as they carry out their inquiries in various social practices? This book provides researchers with an accessible text that also supports the use of the classic tradition of activity theory.
A companion volume to Primary School Teaching and Educational Psychology, this book concerns itself with the day-to-day business of teaching in a secondary school. Throughout the book four themes reoccur: that teachers can best understand the development of children by observing their learning and their relationships within school; that assessment and evaluation are integral to effective teaching; that effective teaching and learning depend on both teacher and child being able to monitor own progress and to find solutions to problems that occur; and finally that there must be explicit recognition of the common-ground between educational psychology and other disciplines such as sociology, philosophy and the history of education.
Author: W. R. Pickering
Release Date: 2006
Expert authors have taken the content of the AS and A level specifications and presented them in a clear and concise format. Simple illustrations are used to present information in a particularly clear and memorable way.
This book is based on the European Comenius project CROSSNET with eight case studies about innovation and science teacher education in six European countries. Guiding questions were how teachers, policy makers and teacher educators collaborate in the process of change and how local background projects respond to opportunities for the exchange of experiences and reflection in terms of a common theoretical framework of boundary crossing. The case studies were conducted by local coordinators and contracted teachers. They are supplemented by a cross-case analysis of common and distinct features in the projects and an essay about the relationship between boundary crossing, transformative learning and curriculum theory. Main outcomes are about school-based reform and collaboration for science education.
Author: Stephen Billett
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2010-06-02
Practice-based learning—the kind of education that comes from experiencing real work in real situations—has always been a prerequisite to qualification in professions such as medicine. However, there is growing interest in how practice-based models of learning can assist the initial preparation for and further development of skills for a wider range of occupations. Rather than being seen as a tool of first-time training, it is now viewed as a potentially important facet of professional development and life-long learning. This book provides perspectives on practice-based learning from a range of disciplines and fields of work. The collection here draws on a wide spectrum of perspectives to illustrate as well as to critically appraise approaches to practice-based learning. The book’s two sections first explore the conceptual foundations of learning through practice, and then provide detailed examples of its implementation. Long-standing practice-based approaches to learning have been used in many professions and trades. Indeed, admission to the trades and major professions (e.g. medicine, law, accountancy) can only be realised after completing extended periods of practice in authentic practice settings. However, the growing contemporary interest in using practice-based learning in more extensive contexts has arisen from concerns about the direct employability of graduates and the increasing focus on occupation-specific courses in both vocations and higher education. It is an especially urgent issue in an era of critical skill shortages, rapidly transforming work requirements and an aging workforce combined with a looming shortage of new workforce entrants. We must better understand how existing models of practice-based learning are enacted in order to identify how they can be applied to different kinds of employment and workplaces. The contributions to this volume explore ways in which learning through practice can be conceptualised, enacted, and appraised through an analysis of the traditions, purposes, and processes that support this learning—including curriculum models and pedagogic practices.
Teaching is changing. It is no longer simply about passing on knowledge to the next generation. Teachers in the twenty-first century, in all educational sectors, have to cope with an ever-changing cultural and technological environment. Teaching is now a design science. Like other design professionals – architects, engineers, programmers – teachers have to work out creative and evidence-based ways of improving what they do. Yet teaching is not treated as a design profession. Every day, teachers design and test new ways of teaching, using learning technology to help their students. Sadly, their discoveries often remain local. By representing and communicating their best ideas as structured pedagogical patterns, teachers could develop this vital professional knowledge collectively. Teacher professional development has not embedded in the teacher’s everyday role the idea that they could discover something worth communicating to other teachers, or build on each others’ ideas. Could the culture change? From this unique perspective on the nature of teaching, Diana Laurillard argues that a twenty-first century education system needs teachers who work collaboratively to design effective and innovative teaching.